History of the Jews in 18th-century Poland

Jewish Polish history during the 18th century:

With the accession to the throne of the Saxon dynasty the Jews completely lost the support of the government. Although Augustus II the Strong (1697–1733), and August III Wettin (1733–1763) officially confirmed at their coronations the Jewish charters, such formal declarations were insufficient to guard the already limited rights of the Jews against the hostile elements, owing to the disorders prevailing in the kingdom blade meat tenderizer. The government was anxious only to collect from the Kahals the taxes, which were constantly being made heavier despite the Jews having not yet recovered from the ruinous events of the Cossacks‘ uprising and the Swedish invasion. The Jews‘ plight was compounded by the fact that the Sejm, composed of nobility and Catholic clergy, blocked all attempts to levy taxes on nobility or clergy, thus only townsfolk and Jews were taxed.

The szlachta and the townsfolk were increasingly hostile to the Jews, as the religious tolerance that dominated the mentality of the previous generations of the Commonwealth citizens was slowly forgotten. In their intolerance, the citizens of the Commonwealth now approached the „standards“ that dominated most of the contemporary European countries, and many Jews felt betrayed by the country they once viewed as their haven. In the larger cities, like Poznań and Kraków, quarrels between the Christian and Jewish inhabitants were common and they assumed a very violent aspect. Based originally on economic grounds, they were carried over into the religious arena; and it was evident that the seeds which the Jesuits had planted had finally borne fruit. Ecclesiastical councils displayed great hatred toward the Jews. Attacks on the latter by students, the so-called Schüler-Gelauf, became every-day occurrences in the large cities, the police regarding such scholastic riots with indifference. Lawlessness, violence, and disorder reigned supreme at that time in Poland, marking the beginning of the downfall of the kingdom. In order to protect themselves against such occurrences, the Jewish communities in many cities made annual contributions to the local Catholic schools.

The decade from the Cossacks‘ uprising until after the Swedish war (1648–1658) left a deep and lasting impression not only on the social life of the Polish-Lithuanian Jews, but on their spiritual life as well. The intellectual output of the Jews of Poland was reduced. The Talmudic learning which up to that period had been the common possession of the majority of the people became accessible to a limited number of students only. What religious study there was became overly formalized, some rabbis busied themselves with quibbles concerning religious laws steel water glass; others wrote commentaries on different parts of the Talmud in which hair-splitting arguments were raised and discussed; and at times these arguments dealt with matters which were of no practical moment. At the same time, many miracle-workers made their appearance among the Jews of Poland, as even famous rabbis of that time devoted themselves to kabbalistic practices, this mysticism culminated in a series of false „Messianic“ movements, and Sabbatianism was succeeded by Frankism among the Jews of Poland.

In this time of mysticism and overly formal rabbinism came the teachings of Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov, or BeShT, (1698–1760), which had a profound effect on the Jews of Eastern Europe and Poland in particular. His disciples taught and encouraged the new fervent brand of Orthodox Judaism based on Kabbalah known as Hasidism. One of those great disciples and teachers was Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk (1717–1786). Many of these disciples became Rebbes themselves with followings, as with the Gerer Hasidic dynasty which was begun by Rabbi Yitzchak Meir Alter (1798–1866). Hasidism gave a ready response to the burning desire of the common people in its simple, stimulating, and comforting faith. In contradistinction to other sectarian teaching, early Hasidism aimed not at dogmatic or ritual reform, but at a deeper psychological one. Its aim was to change not the belief, but the believer. It created a new type of religious man, a type that placed emotion above reason and rites, and religious exaltation above knowledge.

The rise of Hasidic Judaism within Poland’s borders and beyond has had a great influence on the rise of Haredi Judaism all over the world, with a continuous influence that has been felt from the inception of the Hasidic movements and its dynasties by famous rebbes until the present time. The following are noteworthy:

Disorder and anarchy reigned supreme in Poland during the second half of the 18th century, from the accession to the throne of its last king, Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski (1764–1795). This state of affairs was due to the haughty demeanor of the nobility toward the lower classes. The necessity for reform was recognized by the king and by many of the Commonwealth citizens; but Poland was already in the grasp of Russia, and little could be done in this direction. Jewish affairs were sadly neglected, the government seeking merely the extortion of larger taxes; thus the Sejm which met at Warsaw in 1764 for the discussion of measures of reform considered the Jews only to the extent of changing the tax system. About this time, and as a direct consequence of the disorganization of Poland, the disastrous incursions of the brigand bands known as the Haidamaka took place. The movement originated in Podolia and in that part of Ukraine which still belonged to Poland.

These and other internal disorders combined to hasten the end of Poland as a sovereign state. In 1772, in the aftermath of the Confederation of Bar, the outlying provinces were divided among the three neighboring nations, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Russia secured a considerable part of the territory now known as Belarus; Austria obtained Galicia and a part of Podolia; while Prussia received Pomerelia and the lands lying along the lower Vistula. Jews were most numerous in the territories that fell to the lot of Austria and Russia.

The permanent council established at the instance of the Russian government (1773–1788) served as the highest administrative tribunal, and occupied itself with the elaboration of a plan that would make practicable the reorganization of Poland on a more rational basis. The progressive elements in Polish society recognized the urgency of popular education as the very first step toward reform. In 1773 the Society of Jesus in Poland was abolished by Pope Clement XIV, who thus freed Polish youth from the demoralizing influences of Jesuitism. The famous Komisja Edukacji Narodowej („Commission of National Education“), first Ministry of Education in the world, was established in 1773 and founded numerous new schools and remodeled the old ones. One of the members of the commission, kanclerz Andrzej Zamoyski, along with others, demanded that the inviolability of their persons and property should be guaranteed and that religious toleration should be to a certain extent granted them; but he insisted that Jews living in the cities should be separated from the Christians, that those of them having no definite occupation should be banished from the kingdom, and that even those engaged in agriculture should not be allowed to possess land. On the other hand, some szlachta and intellectuals proposed a national system of government bpa free drink bottles, of the civil and political equality of the Jews. This was the only example in modern Europe before the French Revolution of tolerance and broad-mindedness in dealing with the Jewish question. On 3 May 1791 the Great Sejm passed the second oldest constitution of the world, the Polish Constitution of 3 May. But all these reforms were too late. Through the intrigues and bribery of Catherine II of Russia the Confederation of Targowica was formed, to which belonged the adherents of the old order of things. A Russian army invaded Poland, and soon after a Prussian one followed.

A second partition of Poland was made July 17, 1793, Russia taking a large part of White Russia, half of Volhynia, all of Podolia, and the part of Ukraine which had previously been retained by Poland, and Prussians taking Great Poland (Poznań).

A general uprising (Kościuszko Uprising) of the citizens of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1794. Tadeusz Kościuszko was made its leader and dictator, and succeeded in driving the Russians out of Warsaw. Dissensions, however, arose among the Poles, and the Russians and Prussians again entered Poland in force. Kościuszko was decisively defeated at Battle of Maciejowice October 10, 1794; Alexander Suvorov entered Warsaw on November 8, and Polish resistance came to an end. The Jews took an active part in this last struggle of Poland for independence. With the permission of Kościuszko, Berek Joselewicz (1764–1809) formed a regiment of light cavalry consisting entirely of Jews. This regiment accomplished many deeds of valor on the field of battle and distinguished itself especially at the siege of Warsaw, nearly all its members perishing in the defence and eventual massacre of Praga, the fortified suburb of the capital.

The third and final partition of Poland took place in 1795. Russia acquired the whole of Lithuania and Courland; Austria, the remainder of Galicia, and Podolia, including Kraków; Prussia glass water bottle with measurements, the rest of Poland, including Warsaw, the capital; and with that Poland ceased to exist as an independent country. The great bulk of the Jewish population was transferred to Russia, and thus became subjects of that empire, although in the first half of the 19th century some semblance of a Polish state was preserved, greatly diminished, especially in the form of the Congress Poland (1815–1831).


The Müggelsee ( German pronunciation ), also known as the Großer Müggelsee, is a lake in the eastern suburbs of Berlin

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, the capital city of Germany. It is the largest of the Berlin lakes by area, with an area of 7.4 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi), a length of 4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) and a breadth of 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi).

The lake is in the Berlin district of Treptow-Köpenick. The suburbs of Köpenick, Friedrichshagen, Rahnsdorf and a little section of Müggelheim border on the lake.

The lake itself is 8 metres (26 ft) deep at its deepest point. At its south end are hills called the ‚Müggelberge‘, which are 115 metres (377 ft) high; they were formed during the Pleistocene (as a kettle hole, remaining at Weichselian glaciation). On the so-called ‚Kleiner Müggelberg‘, the much-visited and popular ‚Müggelturm‘ (a tower) was built, the first one in 1889 (destroyed in a fire in 1958), and the current one in 1960/61. The tower offers extensive views over the lake and the forests against the Berlin skyline.

The River Spree flows into the lake via the smaller Kleiner Müggelsee, which is only 0.16 square kilometres (0.062&nbsp ways to tenderize steak;sq mi) in area. The Friedrichshagen waterworks on the northern bank of the Müggelsee obtains most of its water from the lake. There are also numerous deep wells located near the banks, and are mainly fed by the bank filtrate and only to a small share by groundwater water sports bottle.

The first uses of the word component „Müggel“ are, according to Gerhard Schlimpert in the „Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis“, in 1394 as „den Tyns in der Miggel“ and in 1487 as „von der Miggelseh“. The etymology remains unclear. The traditional derivative from Common Slavonic mogyla = „grave, grave hill, earth hill“ is rejected by Schlimpert as not durable. A pre-Slavonic, Germanic origin from a Proto-Indo-European root is more probable: migh-, mighla = „fog, cloud“: compare Dutch miggelen = „drizzle“ belongs. Analyses say that the word component „heim“ in the name was brought around 1750 by settlers from the Palatinate from their homeland Odernheim, according to Schlimpert.[citation needed]

In December 2013, a lake on the Saturnian moon Titan was officially named after Lake Müggelsee by the International Astronomical Union. That lake is composed of liquid methane and ethane, and is located at 84°26N and 203°30W on Titan’s globe.

The Chelsea Girls

The Chelsea Girls ist ein Film des US-amerikanischen Malers und Multimedia-Künstlers Andy Warhol aus dem Jahr 1966. Er ist die erste seiner Produktionen aus der frühen Experimentalfilm-Phase, der weltweit in den Kinos gezeigt wurde, und der erste kommerzielle Erfolg für Warhol als Filmemacher.

Gezeigt wird das (fiktive) Leben von Bewohnern des Chelsea Hotels im New Yorker Stadtteil Chelsea, einer ebenso legendären wie heruntergekommenen Künstler-Absteige. Die „Schauspieler“ rekrutieren sich aus den Bewohnern, Besuchern und Freunden der Factory, Warhols Atelier in Manhattan. Wirklich im Hotel wohnten nur das Fotomodell Susan Bottomly, als „Superstar“ International Velvet genannt, Warhols Assistentin Brigid Berlin und Nico.

Der Film besteht aus zwölf gut halbstündigen Episoden (jede 16 mm Filmrolle hat 32 min. Laufzeit), in denen jeweils ein oder mehrere „Bewohner“ des Chelsea vorgestellt werden. Auf der rechten und der linken Leinwandhälfte sind jeweils parallele Handlungsabläufe zu sehen. Er setzt sich (nach der von Paul Morrissey kompilierten Video/DVD-Fassung) wie folgt zusammen:

Kennzeichnend in allen Episoden außer der ersten und der letzten ist die unterschwellige oder offene Gewalttätigkeit der Akteure, die in enger Verbindung zu deren allgegenwärtigem Drogengenuss steht. Brigid verpasst Ingrid eine hohe Dosis Amphetamin, indem sie mit der Nadel durch deren Hose sticht. Mary übt Psychoterror auf ihre Mitbewohnerinnen aus und verprügelt Angelina, ebenso wie Ondine seine Filmpartnerin Rona schlägt, nachdem er sie verbal fertiggemacht und sich Kokain injiziert hat. Der trällernde Transvestit Mario wird von Ed und Patrick aus dem Zimmer gejagt, Ingrid und Ondine übertreffen sich an gegenseitigen Beleidigungen, Brigid beschimpft ihre Telefonpartner. All dieser Narzissmus wird von Warhols Kamera gnadenlos eingefangen und dokumentiert. Gezeigt werden die „dunklen“ eco friendly reusable water bottles, abgründigen Seiten des modernen Lebens in der Metropole New York.

Der Film wurde im Sommer (Juni bis September) 1966 gedreht; Drehorte waren das Hotel selbst, die „Factory“ und verschiedene Wohnungen einschließlich des Velvet Underground-Apartments in der West 3rd Street in Greenwich Village. Bis auf zwei Szenen sind alle Dialoge water bottle reusable, zu denen Ronald Tavel das Drehbuch schrieb, improvisiert. Ursprünglich zum Film gehörte eine Sequenz mit Edie Sedgwick, die sich kurz nach den Dreharbeiten von Warhol getrennt hatte und verlangte, dass dieser Abschnitt herausgenommen werden sollte.

Eine erste Aufführung des noch unfertigen Films fand Ende August 1966 im Presidio-Theater in Los Angeles statt, die Premiere in der Film-Makers’ Cinematheque, Jonas Mekas´ Club für Underground-Filme in New York, am 15. September 1966. In regulären Kinos lief der Film dann ab Dezember des Jahres. Er war für die Aufführungen zunächst „offen“ konzipiert, so dass die einzelnen Filmrollen je nach Gusto des Vorführers eingelegt werden konnten; erst später gab es einen „Abspielplan“. Besonders erwähnt werden muss auf filmtechnischer Seite die so genannte Splitscreen-Technik: Auf der (in zwei oder drei Projektionsflächen) geteilten Leinwand spielen sich mehrere Handlungen parallel ab, eine revolutionäre Technik, die drei Jahre später von den Produzenten des Woodstock-Films aufgegriffen wurde und in den 70er Jahren besonders beliebt war.

Das Echo auf den Film schwankte zwischen aggressiver Ablehnung und Unverständnis, die meisten Kritiken waren vernichtend. Aufführungen in Boston wurden von der Polizei gestürmt und der Kinobesitzer wegen der Verbreitung obszönen Materials verurteilt.

Erst in den letzten Jahren hat die Kunstkritik eine ungeheure ästhetische Sensibilität Warhols bei der Komposition der Bilder, der raffinierten Beleuchtung und der Farbgebung gesehen und den Film als gültiges Kunstwerk bezeichnet.


Le Wielkopolski (polonais : koń wielkopolski) est une race chevaline originaire de Pologne. Race à sang chaud la plus importante en Pologne, elle est très proche du Trakehner allemand. Cheval de sport typique, il est employé pour tous les sports équestres. Depuis peu, la Pologne trouve des moyens pour promouvoir la race, issue d’un croisement entre des races polonaises déjà établies, le mazurien et le poznan where to buy a meat tenderizer. Le Wielkopolski est cependant en danger d’extinction, après une sévère chute d’effectifs au début du XXIe siècle.

Dans le Guide Delachaux, le nom est traduit, de façon erronée, par « grand cheval polonais ». En réalité, koń wielkopolski se traduit par « cheval de Grande-Pologne ». Cette race est récente, puisque son développement remonte aux années qui suivent la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Elle serait issue d’un croisement entre deux races de chevaux de selle polonais, le Mazurien et le Poznań.

Un registre d’élevage est tenu depuis la fin du XIXe siècle. La race a été influencée par le Trakehner, le Pur-sang et le Hanovrien.

En 1993, l’effectif est de 120 000 individus.

D’après le guide Delachaux, il toise de 1,57 m à 1,68 m, parfois plus. CAB International indique 1,54 m à 1,65 m. Il est généralement plus grand que le Malopolski.. La tête est petite, au profil rectiligne. L’encolure est longue, le garrot sorti, le poitrail large. L’épaule est plutôt longue, le dos droit et long, la croupe légèrement inclinée. Les membres sont allongés et musclés, les canons courts, les pieds de bonne qualité. Les crins sont fins.

C’est un cheval vigoureux et à la physionomie intelligente. Il est doux et courageux. Les robes les plus fréquentes sont le bai, l’alezan et le gris.

Le Wielkopolski fut d’abord utilisé pour des travaux agricoles de traction légère, il sert désormais beaucoup plus pour l’équitation de compétition, et surtout comme cheval de selle ou d’attelage.

La race est propre à la Pologne. Elle est notamment originaire du centre-ouest du pays hydration backpack for running. Les effectifs ont beaucoup chuté au début du XXIe siècle. L’étude menée par l’Université d’Uppsala, publiée en août 2010 pour la FAO, signale le Wielkopolski comme race locale d’Europe qui n’est pas menacée d’extinction. En 2012, d’après CAB International les effectifs se situent à environ 2 500 têtes, avec programme de conservation. D’après Tadeusz Szulc, en 2010, le stud-book comptait 2 304 sujets inscrits, dont 70 étalons. L’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO) classe désormais (2017) le Wielkopolski comme étant « en danger » d’extinction. Le dernier recensement disponible sur DAD-IS, celui de 2016, donne un effectif de 1 400 têtes, avec tendance à la baisse.

L’auteure du guide Delachaux (2016) prétend au contraire que cette race serait « appréciée en Pologne et de plus en plus recherchée », ce qui est contraire aux statistiques officielles.

White Fox Boutique

White Fox Boutique is an Australian online fashion retailer aimed for young adults. Founded in 2013, White Fox Boutique sells various brands as well as White Fox The Label and Fox Swim which is sold exclusively on the White Fox Boutique website. To an international customer audience they offer womenswear, footwear, swimwear, accessories and beauty products.

Clothing and accessories from White Fox Boutique have been featured in multiple magazine for spread shoots, Get the Look articles and celebrity shots and paparazzi photographs

In 2016 White Fox Boutique participated in the Vogue Online Shopping Night. which happens twice a year, which includes retailers such as David Jones, Sabo Skirt and French Connection.

In 2015, White Fox Boutique released their exclusive range of women’s clothing called White Fox The Label Orange Runner Waist Pack. Designed by their in house team, this range started off as the essential basics clothing hydration bottles for runners.

In 2016, they released their first collection of swimwear under the new Fox Swim label. Then in December of that year, releasing a collaboration with the Youtube celebrity and social media influencer Shani Grimmond and Fox Swim, creating 8 swimwear items.

On August 1, 2017 cashmere shaver, White Fox Boutique released a collaboration with Youtube celebrity and social media influencer Shannon Harris, Shaaanxo. Releasing 16 items what tenderizes meat, including 4 jewellery items in collaboration with MINC Collection jewellery and 1 pair of footwear.

In August, a new range of activewear was announced and due to launch in October 2017.

Mistrzostwa Europy w Lekkoatletyce 2010 – sztafeta 4 × 100 m kobiet

Sztafeta 4 × 100 metrów kobiet – jedna z konkurencji rozegranych podczas lekkoatletycznych mistrzostw Europy na Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys w Barcelonie.

W konkurencji wystąpiła reprezentacja Polski w składzie:Marika Popowicz, Daria Korczyńska, Marta Jeschke, Weronika Wedler

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1938: III Rzesza (Kohl, Krauß, Albus phone bag, Kühnel) • 1946: Holandia (van der Kade-Koudijs, Witziers-Timmer, Adema, Blankers-Koen) • 1950: Wielka Brytania (Hay, Desforges, Hall, Foulds) • 1954: ZSRR (Kriepkina, Ulitkina, Itkina, Turowa) • 1958: ZSRR (Kriepkina, Kepp, Poljakowa, Masłowskaja) • 1962: Polska (Ciepły, Sobotta, Szyroka, Piątkowska) • 1966: Polska (Bednarek, Straszyńska, Kirszenstein, Kłobukowska) • 1969: NRD (Höfer, Meißner, Podeswa, Vogt) • 1971: RFN (Schittenhelm, Helten, Irrgang, Mickler) • 1974: NRD (Maletzki, Stecher, Heinich, Eckert) • 1978: ZSRR (Anisimowa, Masłakowa, Kondratjewa, Storożkowa) • 1982: NRD (Walther, Wöckel, Rieger, Göhr) • 1986: NRD (Gladisch-Möller, Günther, Auerswald, Göhr) • 1990: NRD (Gladisch-Möller, Krabbe, Behrendt, Günther) • 1994: Niemcy (Paschke, Knoll, Zipp, Lichtenhagen) • 1998: Francja (Benth, Bangué, Félix, Arron) • 2006: Rosja (Guszczina, Rusakowa, Chabarowa, Grigorjewa) • 2010: Ukraina (Powch, Pohrebniak waist hydration pack, Riemień, Bryzhina) • 2014: Wielka Brytania (Philip, Nelson, Williams, Henry) • 2016: Holandia (Samuel, Schippers, Van Schagen, Sedney)

Lanthanum manganite

Lanthanum manganite is an inorganic compound with the formula LaMnO3, often abbreviated as LMO. Lanthanum manganite is formed in the perovskite structure, consisting of oxygen octahedra with a central Mn atom how to tender beef. The cubic perovskite structure is distorted into an orthorhombic structure by a strong Jahn–Teller distortion of the oxygen octahedra.

Lanthanum manganite is an electrical insulator and an A-type antiferromagnet. It is the parent compound of several important alloys, often termed rare-earth manganites or colossal magnetoresistance oxides

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. These families include lanthanum strontium manganite, lanthanum calcium manganite and others.

In lanthanum manganite running belt nz, both the La and the Mn are in the +3 oxidation state. Substitution of some of the La atoms by divalent atoms such as Sr or Ca induces a similar amount of tetravalent Mn+4 atoms. Such substitution, or doping can induce various electronic effects thermos hydration bottle replacement lid, which form the basis of a rich and complex electron correlation phenomena that yield diverse electronic phase diagrams in these alloys.

Abbaye de Georgenthal

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Thuringe

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Allemagne

L‘abbaye de Georgenthal est une ancienne abbaye cistercienne à Georgenthal, dans le Land de Thuringe, en Allemagne.

L’abbaye est fondée en 1142 grâce au comte Sizzo III. von Schwarzburg-Kevernburg (de) et occupée l’année suivante par des moines venant de l’abbaye de Morimond, dont Everhard von Berg (de), le fils d’Adolphe Ier de Berg. Le monastère obtient une grande influence et des propriétés foncières. Il atteint son apogée au début du XVIe siècle. Au cours de la guerre des Paysans allemands safe reusable water bottles, en 1525, l’abbaye est pillée et presque entièrement détruite, les moines fuient vers la ville de Gotha (à 16 km au sud de Georgenthal). Jean de Saxe prononce la dissolution en 1528 bpa free plastic water bottles. Les bâtiments sont démontés comme une carrière.

De l’abbaye, il ne reste aujourd’hui plus que des ruines ; les fondations sont mises au jour entre 1840 et 1906. L’église

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, probablement le premier bâtiment en voûte de Thuringe, est une basilique à trois nefs, avec à l’origine un chœur en cinq absidioles, puis vers 1250 un grand chœur rectangulaire inspiré de l’abbaye de Cîteaux. Au nord de l’église se trouvent les restes de bâtiments (sans doute les lieux de vie) avec deux salles à trois nefs séparées par deux couloirs. La clôture religieuse et le cloître sont au sud.

Il y a aussi un grenier (sans doute d’abord une infirmerie) à l’ouest de l’église, un bâtiment avec une grande maçonnerie qui avait une rose entrelacée au pignon (aujourd’hui au musée d’histoire locale). On trouve aussi un „château“ (une maison de soins infirmiers), construit au cours des XVIe et XVIIe siècles, qui devait aussi accueillir les hôtes. La conciergerie avec des voûtes date du XIIIe siècle.

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Şanlıurfa (stad)

Şanlıurfa of Urfa (ook los geschreven als Şanlı Urfa, Turks: şanlı = „glorierijk“, Koerdisch: Riha; in de oudheid Edessa of Antiochië aan de Callirrhoë) is een stad in Zuidoost-Turkije, met een geschatte bevolking van 390.000 inwoners (2004). Ze ligt op een vruchtbare vlakte, aan drie kanten omringd door bergen. Ze vormt de hoofdplaats van de provincie Şanlıurfa, met een bevolking van ongeveer anderhalf miljoen mensen (2004). Het dialect dat er gesproken wordt, wordt ook Urfa genoemd.

De stad is via grote verkeerswegen verbonden met Gaziantep 150 km naar het westen, met Mardin 250 km naar het oosten, met Diyarbakır 250 km naar het noorden en met Syrië 75 km naar het zuiden.

De economie berust vooral op de landbouw en de veeteelt van de omringende regio; de voornaamste exportproducten zijn boter en katoen.

De voornaamste bezienswaardigheid van Urfa is zijn oude citadel, gelegen op een van de heuvels boven de stad. Daarnaast zijn ook delen van de oude stadsmuren bewaard, naast fragmenten van de waterbeheersingswerken die hier in de 6e eeuw werden opgetrokken. Islamitische monumenten zijn de 17e-eeuwse madrassa en de moskee van Abd ar-Rahman.

Urfa’s eeuwenoud belang ligt bij zijn strategische positie op de pas die de handelsweg tussen Anatolië (Centraal-Turkije) en Noord-Mesopotamië (Noord-Irak) beheerst.

De plaats is al sinds duizenden jaren bewoond; ze werd voor het eerst in het Aramees opgetekend als Urhai. In de plaatselijke overlevering wordt de stad in verband gebracht met aartsvader Abraham. Dat komt doordat zich in de buurt van Balikligöl een grot bevindt waarvan men aanneemt dat hij daar zou zijn geboren. Moslims geloven dat Abraham een profeet was eco friendly reusable water bottles.

In de 3e eeuw v.Chr. verovert Alexander de Grote de stad en sticht er een militaire nederzetting en vernoemt haar naar Edessa, de hoofdstad van zijn vaderland Macedonië.

In de 2e eeuw v. Chr. ontstond hier het koninkrijk Osroene. Toen koning Abgar in de 1e eeuw christen werd en veel inwoners van het land zijn voorbeeld volgden verrezen overal kerken en kloosters. Omstreeks 150 zou hier een van de belangrijkste bisschopszetels van de Syrisch-Orthodoxe Kerk van Antiochië zijn gevestigd. Edessa ontwikkelde zich reeds vroeg tot een centrum van christelijke godgeleerdheid. Een belangrijke stimulans werd gevormd door de Syrische christenen met hun beroemde theologische school met vele vermaarde leraren, waaronder Efrem de Syriër.

Aangenomen wordt dat de oudste christenen van Edessa nazaten waren van de oergemeente te Jeruzalem. Edessa wordt tevens de stad van de apostel Thomas genoemd. Volgens de overlevering zou Thomas opdracht gegeven hebben om er het evangelie te verkondigen. Volgens dezelfde overlevering zou hij hier ook begraven zijn. Omstreeks 380 bezocht de pelgrim Egeria er het graf van Sint-Thomas.

In de 7e eeuw kwam de stad in handen van het Arabische Rijk maar in 1030-1031 werd Edessa veroverd door de Byzantijnen onder leiding van generaal Georgios Maniakes, ze zou ruim 50 jaar Byzantijns blijven tot 1086-1087.

In 1098 wordt de stad ingenomen door de kruisvaarders gedurende de Eerste Kruistocht. In 1147 werden ze weer verdreven door de Turkse Seltsjoeken. Daarna zouden verschillende heersers komen en gaan. In 1637 lijfden de Ottomanen de stad bij hun rijk in en kreeg de stad haar huidige naam

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In 1830 komt de stad korte tijd onder de controle van de Egyptische onderkoning Mohammed Ali Pasja. De vervolging van de Arameestalige christenen in 1916 zorgde ervoor dat de christelijke bevolking van Şanlıurfa nu zo goed als verdwenen is.

Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan

Meadow Lake is a city in the boreal forest of northwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Its location is about 246 kilometres (153 mi) northeast of Lloydminster and 156 kilometres (97 mi) north of North Battleford. On November 9, 2009, it officially became Saskatchewan’s 14th city.

Meadow Lake is the main business centre of northwestern Saskatchewan and serves the many towns and villages as a regional shopping centre. It is the second-largest community in Saskatchewan’s Census Division No. 17, after Saskatchewan’s portion of the interprovincial city of Lloydminster. The city borders the Rural Municipality of Meadow Lake No. 588 and the Flying Dust First Nation No. 105 reserves.

Peter Fidler built Bolsover House in 1799 near „Lac des Prairies“, the first name given to Meadow Lake. In 1873 Metis families arrived establishing a Hudson’s Bay Company trading post, joined by other settlers in the early 1900s. The largest impetus occurred following a fire of 1919 and the exodus of some of the settlers during the Great Depression from the Dust Bowl of central and southern Saskatchewan to communities in the north.

For fur trade in the area see Beaver River (Canada). Peter Fidler of the Hudson’s Bay Company was told by Indian guides that Meadow Lake was a good place for furs. On August 30, 1799 he reached the mouth of the Meadow Lake River. The stream was so narrow and crooked that he almost despaired of navigating it. When he reached the Lake he found it so shallow and swampy that he had to proceed demi-chargé. Finding no good place on the lake he went up a river and selected a place about 1000 yards inland. He named it Bolsover House after his home town in England. The post returned only 190 made beaver in the first season so in 1801 it was closed and everything moved east to Green Lake House. The exact site of Bolsover House is unknown. There is a monument to Peter Fidler in Meadow Lake.

The Meadow Lake Indian Band was established in 1889 with signing of Treaty 6 to the north of Meadow Lake. This reserve is now named the Flying Dust First Nation.

The 1955 population was established as 1,978 by the Saskatchewan Business Directory and as 2,453 in the 1955 Golden Jubilee edition of Saskatchewan Business Directory. 2,216 given in the table is the average of these two population counts.

On November 9, 2009, it officially became Saskatchewan’s 14th city. The population is a matter of uncertainty. The 2001 census showed only a population of 4,582 persons living on 7.64 km2 (2.95 sq mi) of land – Saskatchewan generally requires a sustained population over 5,000 to qualify for city status – however, the city’s Community Profile indicates that an unofficial re-count by Statistics Canada in 2004 showed a population of 5,021. However, the 2006 census figure shows 4,771, while population figures cited in the Community Report and based upon information from Saskatchewan Health claim a 2005 population of 6648. By comparison, Melville, Saskatchewan still retains its city charter despite a population drop to between 4,200 and 4,300.

Meadow Lake is located in the middle of an area pre-historically covered by a large glacial lake also called Meadow Lake (Saskatchewan) formed from a receding continental glacier, of which only a fraction still exists. The lake is located on the east side of the city. The ancient lakeshore forms the Meadow Lake Escarpment, a significant terrain feature clearly visible looking south from many points in the city.

The area is a part of the Southern Boreal EcoRegion with the Northern Boreal EcoRegion to the north and the Parkland EcoRegion on the south. The neighbouring rural areas include Trembling aspen Populus tremuloides, White spruce Picea glauca, Jack Pine Pinus banksiana, Black Spruce Picea mariana and muskegs

Specifically Meadow Lake is situated in the Meadow Lake plain of the Boreal transition ecoregion in the Boreal Plain ecozone.

Meadow Lake experiences a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) that falls just short of being classified as a Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The highest temperature ever recorded in Meadow Lake was 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) on 27 June 2002. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −51.7 °C (−61 °F) on 8 January 1930. A record snowfall occurred November 16, 1984, with 19

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.4 centimeters (7.6 in) and a record 57.8 millimeters (2 how to use powdered meat tenderizer.28 in) of rain fell May 17, 1984. A record snowfall depth was recorded February 22, 1997, when 58 centimeters (23 in) was measured. January 11, 1986, was very cold with wind gusting to 104 kilometers (65 mi) per hour. The humidex was set at a high of 40.4 on August 10, 1991, and the opposite extreme was felt with a −55.8 windchill on December 20, 1989.

Meadow Lake has a mayor as the highest ranking government official. Voters also elect aldermen or councillors to form the municipal council. Currently the mayor is Gary Vidal.

Provincially, Meadow Lake is within the Meadow Lake constituency. It is currently represented served by their MLA, Jeremy Harrison of the Saskatchewan Party.

Meadow lake is represented in the Canadian House of Commons by its MP of the Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River riding, currently Georgina Jolibois of the New Democratic Party.

The tourism, fishing, fur, pulpwood, forestry, agricultural grains, livestock, dairy and poultry product industries all support Meadow Lake which boasted seven grain elevators in 1955. Meadow Lake was processing three million bushels of grain in 1953, the highest amount for a single Canadian community.

Currently the city’s heavy industry is dominated by the primary forestry industry and related service companies, including trucking and forestry management companies. The forest companies include NorSask Forest Products Inc., Meadow Lake Mechanical Pulp Ltd. and the Meadow Lake OSB Limited Partnership. Support industries include Mistik Management and various privately held trucking companies.

Meadow Lake acts as a business hub in its local area, providing services for the smaller surrounding communities of Dorintosh and Rapid View and surrounding reserves including the Flying Dust First Nation and the Eagles Lake reserve.

A major component of the Meadow Lake economy is the First Nation communities and their relative success. The Flying Dust First Nation, which directly borders the town, owns and operates many of the city’s most profitable industries, including direct ownership of NorSask Forest Products Inc., a portion of the Meadow Lake OSB Partnership, stakes in local trucking and service companies, and a sizeable farming operation which is currently limited to leasing the vast amounts of local property they own or have title on.

The community’s agricultural community is also sizeable, including both cereal production and ranching operations. The most pristine agricultural lands are closest to the city, whereas the surrounding areas become less suitable for farming and more amenable to ranching towards the north with the Canadian Shield, or east to the St. Cyr Hills. The city boasts one stockyard and two major agricultural equipment dealers.

The community is home to the SaskPower Meadow Lake Power Station.

The community is 40 km southeast of Meadow Lake Provincial Park.

Meadow Lake is served by Transition Place Education Center, Carpenter High, Jonas Samson Junior High, Lakeview elementary, Jubilee Elementary, Gateway Elementary, and North West Regional College, which offers courses at both the college and university levels. University courses, including complete, community-based Bachelor of Education and Master of Education programs are offered by the University of Regina.

In the spring of 2005, the Government of Saskatchewan invested CA$41,000 to upgrade the roof at Jonas Samson Junior High School. Academy of Learning AOL is a post secondary career and business college in Meadow Lake. For the school year 2007-2008, Lakeview Elementary School started a much anticipated French Immersion Program. Historically the Meadow Lake area was served by several one room school houses, the closest being the Meadow Lake School District #1201 Township 59, range 17, west of the 3rd Meridian.

The Northern Pride is a weekly newspaper based in Meadow Lake and servicing northwest Saskatchewan. The Meadow Lake Progress was a local newspaper that was published from 1931 to 2013.

CJNS-FM 102.3 and CFDM-FM 105.7 are the local radio stations. The town is also served by CBKM-FM 98.5, a repeater of CBK-AM 540 in Watrous.

Meadow Lake is located on SK Highway 55, and SK Highway 4. The Prince Albert – Leoville – Meadow Lake – North Battleford Canadian Pacific Railway reached Meadow Lake Station at Section 26, Township 59, Range 17, west of the Third Meridian in 1931. Meadow Lake Airport (IATA: YLJ, ICAO: CYLJ) is located 2 NM (3.7 km; 2.3 mi) west of Meadow Lake.

Meadow Lake’s slogan is „Gateway to Pure Air and Water.“

Meadow Lake now has a brand new Tourist Information Centre, which is shared by the Meadow Lake Museum Society, Northern Saskatchewan Tourism, and the Meadow Lake Chamber of Commerce. This is located coming into town on highway #4 South.

Meadow Lake Provincial Park, located about 40 km to the north, takes its name from the city. Meadow Lake Lions Regional Park, Nesset Lake Recreation Site and Saint Cyr Hills Trails Recreation Site are neighbouring conservation areas.

Notable persons who were born, grew up, or established their fame in Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan:

Portion of the rider on horseback statue which honours pioneers of the area. Photograph attribution Julia Adamson

Peter Fidler Monument steak tenderizing methods. Photograph attribution Julia Adamson

Mural in Meadow Lake. Photograph attribution Julia Adamson

Plaque on Meadow Lake City Hall (Heritage Building). Photograph attribution Julia Adamson

Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church of All Saints. Photograph attribution Julia Adamson

Holy Trinity Anglican Church. Photograph attribution Julia Adamson


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