Camp Withycombe

Camp Withycombe, located in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States, was originally established as Camp Benson after Governor Frank W. Benson, but was later renamed Camp Withycombe during World War I for Governor James Withycombe.

Originally known as the Clackamas Rifle Range, it was established as a training camp in 1909 and expanded during World War I, during which it served as a headquarters for the National Guard, a central supply depot and training center. Pendleton, Oregon photographer Walter S. Bowman photographed Camp Benson in the early 20th century.

In the 1930s, the camp became a supply depot. Some of the buildings on the camp property, such as the Adjutant General’s house (1938), were built by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

The camp still serves as a training facility, supply depot, and equipment repair facility for the National Guard but the rifle range is now closed.

Camp Withycombe is state land under the responsibility of the Oregon Military Department, a state agency, and is home to several Oregon Army National Guard (ORARNG) military units under the jurisdiction of federal and state military authorities.

Camp Withycombe is a 77+ acre site that is located at the foot of Mount Talbert southeast of Portland. The site contains historic military structures and has had a military armory on site since 1956. The site also contains maintenance, logistics and warehousing functions in support of military missions throughout the state. The site’s armory/readiness training center functions have been identified for upgrade/replacement to house the corporate headquarters of the 41st Brigade as well as joint forces in a new Armed Forces Readiness Center for realigned units from closing United States Army Reserve (USAR) installations in the region.

Throughout its history, Camp Withycombe has been used as a rifle range, mobilization camp, and supply depot, and many agencies have been involved in its ownership and management. Camp Withycombe was originally known as the Clackamas Firing Range and consisted of 100 acres, purchased in 1910. By 1915, the federal government purchased seven additional parcels it had been leasing, increasing the facility’s size to 234 acres. By 1934, the facility’s role as a military supply warehouse and disbursement center expanded and the Clackamas Firing Range was designated a federal military reservation and named Camp Withycombe, after former Oregon governor, James Withycombe.

Camp Withycombe served as a mobilization point for the ORARNG for federal service throughout World War I and II and other federal operations. Throughout World War II, the site was used as a United States (U gel belts for running.S.) Army barracks and its firing ranges received extensive use by the U.S. Army, the U.S. Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, police, and civilians (AMEC, 2009). In addition to uses for training, Camp Withycombe served as a supply depot. In 1949, additional facilities were built in support of the camp’s supply function and role as an ordnance center.

The Department of Defense (DoD) conveyed Camp Withycombe to the OMD in 1956 through a quitclaim deed that required the property continue to be used for military purposes only, or it would be reverted to the U.S. government water carriers for runners. Eventually, OMD transferred ownership of 156 acres of the property to ODOT for inclusion in the proposed Sunset Corridor right-of-way. Under a lease agreement with ODOT, OMD maintains administrative control over the entire property drinking glass bottle. The Department of Army released reversionary interest in the 156-acre ODOT portion of the property through the U.S. Congress in 1989. The Department of Army maintains reversionary interest in the remaining OMD Property.

Camp Withycombe is the site of the relocated and expanded Oregon Military Museum, which is under construction and expected to open in late 2017. The museum is a member of the Army Museum System. The museum was previously located at another site in Clackamas County, in Canby, and it closed in 2008 to begin a transition to a planned new facility at Camp Withycombe. The new museum’s formal name is the Brig. Gen. James B. Thayer Military Museum, and it is named in honor of James B. Thayer.

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Nationaal Park Toenkinski

Nationaal Park Toenkinski (Russisch: Национальный парк «Тункинский») is een nationaal park gelegen ten zuiden van het Baikalmeer, in de Russische autonome republiek Boerjatië. De oprichting tot nationaal park vond plaats op 27 mei 1991, per decreet (№ 282/1991) van de Raad van Ministers van de Russische SFSR. Het nationaal park heeft momenteel een oppervlakte van 11.836,62 km². In het zuidwesten grenst het aan het bijna even grote Nationaal Park Hövsgöl Nuur van Mongolië. Een deel van het nationaal park maakt sinds 1996 deel uit van de UNESCO-Werelderfgoedinschrijving «Baikalmeer».

Het grondgebied van Nationaal Park Toenkinski valt samen met dat van het administratief district Toenkinski en grenst in het zuidwesten aan Mongolië. De noordelijke en noordwestelijke bergkammen behoren toe tot de Oostelijke Sajan, terwijl de zuidelijke bergkammen tot de westelijke uitlopers van het Chamar-Dabangebergte behoren. Daarnaast is het nationaal park gelegen tussen de zoetwatermeren Hövsgöl Nuur en Baikalmeer. De belangrijkste waterloop is de rivier Irkoet, die in het dal tussen de twee gebergten stroomt.

Bossen bezetten met een oppervlak van 10.718 km² (71%) het overgrote deel van Toenkinski. De belangrijkste bosvormende soorten zijn de Siberische den (Pinus sibirica), Siberische lariks (Larix sibirica), grove den (Pinus sylvestris), Siberische spar (Picea obovata), Siberische zilverspar (Abies sibirica), Aziatische berk (Betula platyphylla), esp (Populus tremula) en Mongoolse populier (Populus suaveolens). Ook zijn er veel bergachtige, ruige terreinen met puinhellingen, bergtoendra, bergsteppe en alpenweiden drinking glass bottle. Overige biotopen zijn bergmeren, rivieren en beken.

In Nationaal Park Toenkinski zijn maar liefst 1.037 vaatplanten vastgesteld donair meat recipe. Vele hiervan zijn endemisch voor de regio, zoals Fritillaria dagana, Viola ircutiana en Viola alexandrowiana.

Grote zoogdieren in het gebied zijn onder andere het Siberisch muskushert (Moschus moschiferus), Siberisch ree (Capreolus pygargus), Siberische wapiti (Cervus canadensis sibiricus), wolf (Canis lupus) en bruine beer (Ursus arctos). Onder de kleinere zoogdieren bevinden zich onder meer de sabelmarter (Martes zibellina), hermelijn (Mustela erminea), noordelijke fluithaas (Ochotona hyperborea), gewone vliegende eekhoorn (Pteromys volans), langstaartgrondeekhoorn (Spermophilus undulatus) en noordse spitsmuis (Sorex caecutiens). De zeldzaamste zoogdieren die in het gebied zijn vastgesteld, zijn de Aziatische wilde hond (Cuon alpinus) en het sneeuwluipaard (Panthera uncia), beide soorten staan op de Rode Lijst van de IUCN en de Russische Rode Lijst van bedreigde soorten.

In Nationaal Park Toenkinski zijn 207 broedvogels vastgesteld. Vogelsoorten die men in lariksbossen kan aantreffen zijn zowel het auerhoen (Tetrao urogallus) als rotsauerhoen (Tetrao parvirostris) en soorten als Siberische boompieper (Anthus hodgsoni), noordse boszanger (Phylloscopus borealis) en bladkoning (Phylloscopus inornatus). In donkere bergtaiga broeden vogelsoorten als hazelhoen (Tetrastes bonasia), spiegelroodstaart (Phoenicurus auroreus), grauwe fitis (Phylloscopus trochiloides) en Pallas‘ boszanger (Phylloscopus proregulus). In bergtoendra is de soortsamenstelling weer anders en kan men vooral roodkeelnachtegalen (Luscinia calliope), Pallas‘ rietgorzen (Emberiza pallasi) en roodmussen (Carpodacus erythrinus) vinden. Ook het bedreigde altaiberghoen (Tetraogallus altaicus) leeft hoog in de bergen, een soort die alleen in Centraal-Azië voorkomt.

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