Norsk språkhistorie (19. århundre)

Norsk språkhistorie i det 19. århundre

Etter oppløsningen av fellesskapet med Danmark i 1814 var skriftspråket dansk, selv om bønder og fiskere utgjorde omtrent 90 % av befolkningen og snakket ulike norske dialekter.[trenger referanse] Striden kom da til å stå mellom dem[hvem?] som fortsatt ville ha dansk, dem som ville fornorske dansken og dem som ville skape et helt nytt skriftspråk.

Ivar Aasen og nasjonalromantikerne mente at eget språk var et av de viktigste kjennetegnene på en nasjonalstat.[trenger referanse] Han mente at skriftspråket skulle bygge på de levende dialektene. Aasen hevdet at talemålene hadde en ubrutt tradisjon fra norrøn tid og fram til samtiden. Denne «glemte» forståelsen føyde seg godt inn i nasjonalromantikkens program om å finne tilbake til det ekte norske.[trenger referanse]

Aasens kongstanke var at det nye skriftspråket skulle bygge på det han kalte «Folkemaalet», altså på talemålet til vanlige folk; bønder og fiskere.[trenger referanse] Skriftspråket skulle ikke bygges bare på en én av dialektene (slik enkelte mente), men på en samlende normal av alle dialektene.[trenger referanse] For å kunne kartlegge de dialektene og lage en slik norm, besøkte han til fots eller med hest vestlandet, agderfylkene, telemark og østlandet utenom byene. I 1853 gav han ut Prøver af Landsmaalet. Her hadde han konstruert et skriftspråk bygd på noen av de norske dialektene. Senere gav Ivar Aasen ut en grammatikk og ordbok på det nyskapte skriftspråket.

Skriftspråket til Aasen skulle renses for fremmedord; spesielt for tyske lånord fra hansatiden.[trenger referanse]

Ivar Aasen mente som mange andre på den tiden at Norge ikke kunne kalles for et ordentlig demokrati før bønder og folk flest deltok i det lokale og nasjonale styresettet.[trenger referanse] For å kunne hevde seg, trengte folk ikke bare kunnskap, men eget fullverdig språk.

Læreren Knud Knudsen var fra Sørlandet og regnes som «far til riksmålet og bestefar til bokmålet» (Einar Lundeby).[trenger referanse] Han var den viktigste representanten og utvikleren av den linjen som ville ha gradvis fornorsking bygd på den dannede dagligtale. Dette definerte Knudsen som «den almindeligste Uttale af Ordene i de Dannedes Mund.»[trenger referanse] Dette talemålet i overklassen bygde på dansk skrift, men med norske lyder og en del norske ord.[trenger referanse] Knudsen selv brukte begrepet «den landsgyldige norske uttale». Siden dette var overklassens talemål,[trenger referanse] regnet han med at det hadde nok prestisje til å bli akseptert som grunnlag for fornorskingen. Selv om den dannede dagligtalen var sterkt preget av dansk, hadde det altså klare innslag av norsk. Knud Knudsen regnet med at fornorskingen etter hvert ville føre skriftspråket nærmere folkemålet; altså slik vanlige folk snakket.[trenger referanse]

Knud Knudsen og Ivar Aasen var begge enige om at de ville ha vekk det danske skriftspråket,[trenger referanse] men de var uenige om hvordan. Knudsen hadde liten tro på at Aasens prosjekt ville få gjennomslag. Derfor kalte han Aasens vei for «Bråhastens vei».[trenger referanse] Men han regnet ikke Aasen som en konkurrent, men snarere at de to tilnærmingsmåtene var som to elver som en gang ville flyte sammen til ett norsk språk (framtidsnorsk).[trenger referanse] Med det ortofone, eller lydrettem prinsipp, menes at det er overensstemmelse mellom talespråk og skriftspråk; altså at en skriver slik en snakker. Faktum var at den skrevne dansken på denne tiden hadde ganske mange ord med stumme bokstaver.[trenger referanse] Han laget derfor en rekke norske avløserord for fremmedord.[trenger referanse]

Knudsen og Aasen var ikke de eneste som var opptatt av språkspørsmål på 1800-tallet. Både Henrik Wergeland og eventyrsamlerne Asbjørnsen og Moe var forløpere for utviklingslinjen til Knudsen.[trenger referanse]

Henrik Wergeland var opptatt av å bedre kårene for de fattige og eiendomsløse. Han mente at dette kunne gjøres gjennom folkeopplysing, og da var det viktig å fornorske dansken slik at folk kunne lese og forstå.[trenger referanse]

I 1840-årene gav Asbjørnsen og Moe ut sine samlinger av norske eventyr og sagn. Det var uaktuelt å publisere eventyrene og sagnene på dialekt, som var utilgjengelig for leserne i byene. Aasen sitt landsmål var ennå ikke klart, og Asbjørnsen og Moe mente heller ikke at et rent dansk var egnet til å uttrykke innholdet.[trenger referanse] Løsningen ble dansk grammatikk og rettskriving, men norsk ordvalg og setningsbygning. Senere brukte de norske diftonger (bein – ben) og harde konsonanter (p, t, k for b, d, g).

Henrik Ibsen og Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson var begge opptatt av språkspørsmål.De var begge riksmålsforkjempere som var opptatt av norsk språktone og norske ord og uttrykk i sitt forfatterskap.

Arne Garborg og Aasmund Olavsson Vinje derimot, tok i bruk det nye landsmålet i diktningen sin.

I 1885 kom jamstillingsvedtaket som sidestilte riksmål og landsmål (i dag nynorsk), i vedtaket kalt «det norske Folkemaalet». Vedtaket i 1885 er bakgrunnen for at det gis opplæring i begge målformer i grunnskolen.

Målparagrafen fra 1892 bestemte at de enkelte skolestyrer selv kunne avgjøre om de ville bruke landsmål eller riksmål i skolen.

På slutten av 1800-tallet begynte de første skolekretsene å gå over til landsmål, og i 1880 kom den første læreboka på landsmål.[trenger referanse]

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Liga Militar (Grecia)

La Liga Militar fue una organización de militares griegos que controló indirectamente la política del país entre 1909 y 1910, forzando varios cambios de gobierno y la aprobación de numerosa legislación que consideraba renovadora., Su llamamiento a Eleftherios Venizelos para participar en la política nacional cambió la misma hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Tras la derrota militar de Grecia en la guerra contra el Imperio Otomano de 1897, siguió una década de estancamiento, crisis económica, descontento social y nula expansión territorial. En el Ejército surgieron sociedades secretas críticas con la actuación del gobierno, a menudo encabezado por Georgios Theotokis, y de la dirección de los asuntos militares por el príncipe heredero Constantino, jefe del Estado Mayor.

Aunque las primeras reuniones informales de militares para evaluar la situación se dieron a finales de 1908, las actividades de estos grupos se aceleraron sólo a finales de la primavera de 1909. En estos primeros meses el objetivo principal de los oficiales fue aumentar el número de conspiradores, que creció a comienzos de 1909. En parte estos oficiales se inspiraron en la reciente revuelta de los Jóvenes Turcos en el Imperio otomano, y en las recientes actividades de las sociedades secretas en Serbia (1903) y en Portugal (1908), que habían logrado cambiar los gobiernos nacionales respectivos.

En mayo de 1909 un grupo de tenientes entre los que se contaba Theodoros Pangalos se reunió para criticar la falta de intromisión del rey en la política nacional y su control de la exterior, la conducta del diádoco como jefe del Estado Mayor y los mandos militares de otros príncipes de la familia real. Su postura era en general antidinástica y chovinista. Otro grupo, esta vez de capitanes, se reunió por su parte a comienzos de junio para criticar también la situación del país, pero mucho más moderadamente, defendiendo la aprobación de leyes que reforzasen las fuerzas armadas. Un tercer grupo de suboficiales formó una tercera sociedad. Los tres grupos coexistieron independientemente al comienzo.

El 8 de julio de 1909 las organizaciones de tenientes y capitanes se reunieron para tratar su posible unión water that comes in glass bottles. Tras un comienzo infructuoso, la presencia de un coronel enviado por el gobierno para acabar con la reunión hizo que los dos grupos aprobasen la unión y se formase oficialmente la Liga Militar (en griego: Στρατιωτικός Σύνδεσμος, Stratiotikos Syndesmos). Dos días más tarde aprobaban la creación de un comité que debía defender sus exigencias. La principal de ellas era el reforzamiento de las fuerzas armadas, que el gobierno debía llevar a cabo inmediatamente, incluso si para ello era necesario amenazarlo con el uso de la fuerza por los conjurados.

Pronto los militares consiguieron en el apoyo de ciertos periódicos, que comenzaron a defender en sus editoriales las demandas de los conspiradores.

Los opositores a la Liga no contaban con la unidad ni con la fuerza suficiente para oponerse a ella. La Liga controlaba tanto el Ejército de Tierra como la Armada, cimientos de la monarquía. Los partidos políticos, duramente criticados por la prensa por su corrupción, no lograron el respaldo suficiente de sus bases para oponerse a la Liga. La mayoría de los dirigentes del parlamento consideraron que una postura moderada hacia los militares era la mejor para evitar una posible guerra civil.

El 28 de agosto de 1909 las guarniciones de la capital se amotinaron y, ante la incapacidad del gobierno de sofocar la revuelta y de lograr el apoyo de otras unidades, lograron el cambio de gobierno y la aceptación por el nuevo primer ministro, Kiriakulis Mavromichalis, de las exigencias que Dimitrios Rallis había rechazado. Pronto la Liga se hizo con el control de las fuerzas armadas, purgando a los oficiales sospechosos de hostilidad a la misma.

El 14 de septiembrejul./ 27 de septiembre de 1909greg. se celebró en la capital una gran manifestación convocada por los gremios de la ciudad para mostrar su apoyo a la Liga y tratar de desbaratar cualquier oposición a ella en el parlamento. La marcha fue un éxito e incluso logró un apoyo aparente del monarca.

El nuevo gobierno de Kiriakulis Mavromichalis, minoritario en las cortes griegas reusable glass, se apresuró a aprobar las medidas exigidas por la Liga, que aplicó su amenaza de intervención militar ante cualquier intento de obstrucción en el parlamento. Theotokis se mantuvo como jefe del principal partido en el parlamento, opuesto a la Liga pero consciente de su poder y finalmente cooperó con el gobierno para aprobar las medidas impuestas por los militares.

A pesar de la numerosa legislación aprobada por el parlamento en la segunda mitad de 1909 y comienzos de 1910 la Liga hubo de reconocer la falta de cambios en el país, que no podía cambiar simplemente por la aprobación de leyes. Incapaces de lograr un apoyo sincero de los políticos griegos, los militares llamaron a Eleftherios Venizelos de Creta para solicitar su consejo. Venizelos convenció a los militares para solicitar la convocatoria de una Asamblea Nacional que modificase ciertos artículos de la constitución y asegurase la continuación de la renovación política y militar del país, a cambio de su disolución.

El 26 de enero de 1910 la Liga expuso sus condiciones para su disolución. Se debía formar un nuevo gobierno con la confianza de la Liga que aprobaría las últimas medidas legislativas antes de convocar una Asamblea Nacional para revisar parcialmente la constitución. Tras largas negociaciones entre la Liga, el monarca y los dirigentes políticos gestionadas en parte por Venizelos, la Liga consintió en disolverse antes de que el rey convocase a la Asamblea (29 de marzo de 1910). Al día siguiente el soberano convocaba formalmente la Asamblea según el acuerdo pactado y los militares se retiraban de la vida política del país.

La intervención de la Liga en la política griega en 1909-1910 a menudo se califica de „revolución“ en los textos griegos. Los objetivos de la Liga, sin embargo, no eran un cambio radical de la política o la sociedad griegas, y su programa era reformista, no revolucionario. Su ambición principal era un reforzamiento de las fuerzas armadas para poder llevar a cabo el ideal chovinista de la Megali Idea. Las reformas políticas o económicas que exigían buscaban facilitar el objetivo militar principal.

Su intervención política fue esencialmente coercitiva, amenazando a la posible oposición política a las medidas que exigía con una intervención armada. Sus acciones, sin embargo, fueron en general moderadas, dado el control de la facción más moderada de la organización. Aun así, la Liga sí llevó a cabo una serie de medidas contrarias a la dinastía reinante, que mostró su hostilidad al movimiento de los militares.

Finalmente la Liga tuvo que aceptar, como los gobiernos parlamentarios anteriores a su intervención política, la debilidad económica del país para costear las ambiciosas medidas militares necesarias para lograr sus objetivos de expansión territorial. La situación diplomática de la nación tampoco permitía asegurar la consecución de las ambiciones territoriales. Grecia permanecía dependiente de la benevolencia de las grandes potencias y de su financiación mediante la concesión de créditos.

El golpe de Estado del 15 de agostojul./ 28 de agosto de 1909greg. llevó a un periodo de control militar de la política griega en el que se llevó a cabo una reforma moderada, pero no una revolución.

Хардер, Генрих

2 июня 1858(1858-06-02)

Путцар, Больдеков, Форпоммерн-Грайфсвальд[d], Мекленбург-Передняя Померания, Германия

5 февраля 1935(1935-02-05) Берлин, Третий рейх

 Германия

Ге́нрих Ха́рдер (нем. Heinrich Harder; 2 июня 1858, Путцар — 5 февраля 1935, Берлин)&nbsp best spill proof water bottle;— немецкий художник. Стал знаменит благодаря блестяще выполненным изображениям ныне живущих и доисторических животных.

Хардер начал изучать живопись с детства. Он жил как обычный художник, продавая нарисованные им картины. Хардер также создавал иллюстрации животных для книг. В 1906 году, пользуясь консультациями натуралиста Вильгельма Бёльше, он впервые выполнил несколько иллюстраций доисторических животных.

Позже Хардер сделал роспись здания Берлинского аквариума[de] при Берлинском зоопарке. Помимо росписей usa soccer guy t shirts, изображавших доисторических животных, Хардер украсил здание барельефами. Вход в здание он венчал статуями голов трицератопса, торозавра, миолании, дицинодона и элгинии, а перед входом поставил статую игуанодона college football t shirts.

После этого Хардер проиллюстрировал ещё множество книг и в конце концов стал профессором искусства в Берлинском университете.

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Гаттерия

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International Workers Congresses of Paris, 1889

Two congresses were held in Paris, beginning on July 14, 1889 waterproof clear bag. They had been called for by the London International Trades Union Congress, meeting in London in November 1888, and the French Syndicalist Congress, meeting at the same time. Internecine conflicts within the French socialist movement, however, prompted the „possibilist“ faction to hold its own congress at the same time. The larger assembly, the International Socialist Workers Congress of Paris, dubbed the „Marxist“ congress resolved to arrange a second meeting at Zurich, and the Possibility one at Brussels. However the Marxist organizing committee decided to relent and the next congress met in Brussels in 1891.

The International Socialist Workers Congress of Paris was scheduled to meet at the Salle Petrelle, but soon had to move to larger accomendations at 42, rue Rochechouart. The delegate count was as follows.

For full list of delegates and the groups they represented where to buy football jerseys, see below Protokoll des internationalen Arbeiter-congresses zu Paris p.&nbsp navy football socks;129-138 how do you tenderise meat.

The „Marxist“ congress passed resolutions on the unity of the socialist movement (presented by Wilhelm Liebknecht), international labor legislation (the eight-hour workday, night work, labor conditions for women and children), the abolition of permanent armies, and the various means to attain these goals. It also passed a resolution calling for an international demonstration for the eight-hour working day on May 1.

The International Workers Congress, or „possibilist“ congress met at #10, rue de Langry. Its delegate count was as follows.

The posibilist congress passed resolutions on universal suffrage, trust, international labor legislation, and on the means of creating a permanent means of relation between the autonomous socialist and workers groups.

Henri James Simon

Henri James Simon

Henri James Simon (né le 17 septembre 1851 à Berlin et décédé le 23 mai 1932 à Berlin) était un entrepreneur allemand et un mécène d’origine juive.

Il était un des hommes les plus riches de Berlin à l’époque de l’empereur Guillaume II (1890-1918) et une personnalité aux multiples facettes : entrepreneur plein de succès, bienfaiteur des musées de Berlin, interlocuteur de l’empereur Guillaume II, fondateur et financeur de nombreuses institutions de bienfaisance. Son nom est associé au buste de la reine Néfertiti qu’il a transmis au Musée égyptien de Berlin.

Isaac, le père de Simon, était venu à Berlin avec son frère en 1838  uniform express football; leur entreprise commune de commerce de coton était devenue rapidement prospère. C’est un évènement survenu de l’autre côté de l’Atlantique qui allait rendre la famille vraiment riche : la Guerre de Sécession aux États-Unis eut comme conséquence, en 1863/64, que le coton et les produits dérivés du coton sont devenus très rares en Europe et spécialement aussi en Prusse electric sweater defuzzer. Les frères Simon profitèrent de cette conjoncture padded football socks. Bientôt ils furent surnommés les « rois du coton », et plus tard Simon héritera de cette appellation.

James Simon est né le 17 septembre, sa mère Adolphine était fille de rabbin. James a fréquenté le célèbre lycée Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster à Berlin replica football jerseys, il a développé une inclinaison pour le latin et le grec ; il jouait du piano et du violon. Une carrière de commerçant était pour lui toute tracée et après son baccalauréat en 1869, il entra comme apprenti dans l’entreprise familiale. Vers 1900, il figurait sur la liste des millionnaires de Berlin et son entreprise faisait partie des plus grosses entreprises textiles du continent européen.

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Étienne Pascal

Étienne Pascal (3 mai 1588 à Clairmont (aujourd’hui Clermont-Ferrand) – 24 septembre 1651 à Paris), gentilhomme, conseiller du roi pour l’élection de Basse Auvergne, puis second président à la Cour des aides de Montferrand et enfin, après une période de disgrâce youth sports uniforms, premier président à la Cour des aides de Normandie, fut un membre actif de l’académie du Père Mersenne.

Fils de Martin Pascal de Mons, trésorier du roi, il fait ses études à la Sorbonne de 1608 à 1610, puis acquiert la charge de conseiller du roi pour l’élection de Basse-Auvergne personalised football shirts. Il épouse Antoinette Bégon (†1626), fille d’un collègue du Parlement d’Auvergne, dont il a quatre enfants : Antonia (1617-1617), Gilberte (1620-1687), Blaise (1623-1662) et Jacqueline (1625-1661).

En 1624, il acquiert la charge de second président à la Cour des aides de Montferrand et, à la mort de sa femme, entreprend d’éduquer seul ses enfants. Après l’échec de sa candidature au poste de premier président de la cour des aides en 1631, il décide de déménager avec sa famille à Paris, où il pourra donner libre cours à sa passion pour les sciences. Pour s’assurer une rente, Étienne Pascal place le produit de la vente de sa charge de président à la Cour des Aides sur les rentes de l’Hôtel de ville de Paris (équivalent à l’époque aux bons du Trésor) et normalement garantis par le roi.

Mais en 1638, le chancelier Séguier, constatant le coût des guerres, doit surseoir au paiement des intérêts. Cette décision provoque une protestation des créanciers le 25 mars rue Saint Antoine, devant l’hôtel Séguier country football shirts. Étienne Pascal, qui a été identifié parmi les meneurs, est contraint de se cacher en Auvergne, et ce n’est qu’à la suite d’un compliment adressé par sa fille Jacqueline à la reine pour la naissance du futur Louis XIV qu’il rentre en grâce. En janvier 1640, il est nommé à Rouen en tant que commissaire du roi pour la levée des tailles. Il exercera cette fonction jusqu’à sa suppression, demandée par le Parlement au début de la Fronde, en mai 1648.

La passion d’Étienne Pascal pour les sciences était bien connue à Paris. Ami de Roberval, il proposa l’étude d’une courbe dérivée du cercle, le limaçon. Il fut chargé par Richelieu, avec Pierre Hérigone et Claude Mydorge, d’établir si la méthode de détermination des longitudes proposée par Morin à partir des phases de la Lune était praticable et devait être récompensée.

John Bixler

John Bixler was born in Washington, D.C. and raised in Shaker Heights, Ohio with his identical twin brother, professional musician, Patrick Bixler.

Mr. Bixler graduated from Shaker Heights High School and is a summa cum laude graduate of Ohio University School of Theatre with a BFA in Acting.[citation needed] He has also studied acting at the Circle Repertory Company School where he performed in the Circle Rep LAB.

Mr. Bixler is best known for his break out performance as Elliot in Stephen Svoboda’s 2004 New York International Fringe Festival hit, Odysseus Died From AIDS. Other new play premiers include The Hitchhiking Game by Piper Perabo, Spit for Distance by Scott Marshall Taylor, Disengaged by Anita Gabrosek, Sophie by Anne Cofell, Tracks by Josh Weil and Clarence Darrow’s Last Trial by Shirley Lauro.

Other regional credits include Hally in Master Harold and the Boys by Athol Fugard at Gables Stage, Joe in The Last Sunday in June at Caldwell Theatre, David in the one man show Santaland Diaries at Fresco Productions in residence at the Jerry Herman Ring Theatre

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, Jake Mace in House and Garden by Alan Ayckbourn and Turkey in Johnny Guitar all at Actor’s Playhouse.

Mr. Bixler won an Artie Award for his performance as Carl in Paula Vogel’s The Baltimore Waltz at the Buffalo United Artists Company.

Mr. Bixler starred as Eddie healthy water bottles bpa free, opposite Piper Perabo, in Fool for Love by Sam Shepard at the Ohio Studio Theatre.

Mr. Bixler’s feature film roles include Terry in The Dynamic, for Native Films, John in Afterthought for Iko Productions, and Davis in In Plain Sight for Ball Four Studios.

wie wird ein schneller fußballer

geschwindigkeit ist eine wichtige fähigkeit für fußballer.wie bei anderen aspekten der körperlichen fitness, regelmäßige praxis und die richtige ernährung machen ihnen ein schneller spieler.wenn möglich, der speed – übungen unter anleitung eines erfahrenen trainer, die dich zwingen, hart zu arbeiten, in einer sicheren weise.in der regel eine normale, gesunde ernährung, ausreichend, aber mit einem kohlehydratreichen snack vor dem training gibt dir neue energie bekommen.
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, die mehrere meter auseinander.fokus auf sprinten, so schnell wie möglich von einem ort zum anderen, ohne jedoch nicht.
sprint bergauf.fußball – spiele stattfinden, auf flachen feldern, läuft aber auf eine steigung entwickelt ihre muskeln schneller laufen auf eine ebene oberfläche.
durch ihr nervensystem bergab sprints zu lehren, schnelle beinbewegungen zu koordinieren.sprinten eine steigung zwingt, ihr nervensystem schicken schnell signale zu ihrem bein muskeln gleichgewicht aufrechterhalten.durch einen sprint auf eine flache oberfläche sofort nach ihrer downhill sprint zu ihrem körper helfen, um die signalisierung in normalen situationen schneller laufen.
an ein fußball, während sie im sprint.es ist nicht leicht, den fußball in der nähe zu halten, während sie schnell laufen, so konzentrieren sich auf die kontrolle der ball.die fähigkeit, schnell zu laufen, während die kontrolle über den ball, macht sie ein wirksames player.
mit übungen durchführen, mit anderen spielern dazu zu bringen, ihre wettbewerbsfähigkeit ader.zum beispiel explosionsfahige laufen macht durch einen 30 – bis 40 – fuß – sprints als team.maximale beschleunigung entwickeln über kurze entfernungen von 80 bis 100 meter sprinten.

Giuseppe Terragni

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Giuseppe Terragni (né le à Meda, mort le à Côme) est un architecte italien.

En 1928, Giuseppe Terragni participe au « Gruppo 7 » qui publie le manifeste du rationalisme italien. Influencé par différents styles : rationalisme, futurisme et constructivisme, il crée des bâtiments dont les vides et les pleins se mélangent avec une grande beauté. Son collaborateur Pietro Lingeri l’accompagne dans toute sa carrière et termine la dernière œuvre après la mort tragique de Terragni women skater dress. Il est mort des suites d’une blessure sur le front russe.

Politiquement très impliqué, son architecture est liée au mouvement fasciste italien.

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Raaz: The Mystery Continues

Raaz: The Mystery Continues, shortened as RTMC, (Hindi: राज़, English: Secret: The Mystery Continues) is 2009 Indian supernatural horror film directed by Mohit Suri and starring Emraan Hashmi and Kangana Ranaut. The film is the second film in the Raaz series running hydration gear, but story-wise, it is not a direct sequel to the 2002 film Raaz. The film deals with issues of the „evil within“ the human psyche and how it manifests itself. It is based on the myths and superstitions that are still widely existent in the contemporary Indian society. The film attempts to challenge one’s beliefs about paranormal phenomena. Emraan Hashmi plays a painter, named Prithvi, who has an extraordinary gift, the ability to paint the future. His paintings tell Nandita’s (Kangana Ranaut) future.

The film opened to theaters on 23 January 2009. It received generally mixed reviews and became a „semi hit“ at the box office. A third installment in the Raaz series was released in 2013 with Emraan Hashmi in the lead. Some of the scenes of the movie were similar to those of the Hollywood movies The Ring 2 and Gothika[citation needed]. It was first in a series of quasi-sequels released under the Bhatt Banner including Murder 2, Jannat 2, Jism 2, Raaz 3D and 1920: Evil Returns, each of which had nothing to do with their respective prequels, but somehow fell in the same genre following a similar story.

The story starts with an American visiting the Kalindi Temple at night. There he sees the priest of the temple in a horrific state – he had slit his body with a scythe and had written ‚Om‘ on his body. The man, horrified by what he is seeing, flees from there. The story then shifts to a model in her early 20s, Nandita (Kangana Ranaut) who is in love with Yash, (Adhyayan Suman) a director and host of the reality show „Andhvishwas“ a show dealing with various superstitions of ghosts and tantric voodoos. Yash gifts Nandita an apartment where they start living and they love each other, in the meantime Nandita gets pregnant.

One evening, Nandita encounters Prithvi (Emraan Hashmi), an aspiring artist who is in search of his masterpiece. Prithvi tells Nandita that he made a sketch 4 months ago of a girl, who is actually Nandita. He also shows her a painting where she is lying with her wrist slit. He warns her of any type of danger. Regardless, Nandita accidentally slits her wrist due to an unknown ghostly attack on her in the bathroom. Prithvi saves her and admits her to a hospital. Yash arrives to the hospital and comes to know about her pregnancy and also her miscarriage due to excessive bleeding. She complains to Yash about Prithvi, and Yash gets him arrested, though he is released later on.

Meanwhile, at Kalindi, the same American, David Cooper (J. Brandon Hill), who is the Kalindi chemical plant owner, commits suicide by hanging himself after writing on the wall of his room, „Tum ashudh ho, andar sey sadh chuke ho“ (You are impure, you are rotten from inside), with his blood. The inspector investigating the suicide is severely affected by it. Back at his home, Prithvi makes another picture of Nandita getting mobbed. He runs to a fashion show where Nandita is performing, and witnesses her being possessed and attacking a spiritual guru attending the show. She then says the same lines, „Tum ashudh Ho, andar sey sadh chuke ho“, to the guru. Prithvi rushes to her rescue, but is prevented by the guards. Nandita is taken away from the guru and audience. The guru later appears on TV, claiming she had been possessed. Coming to know about everything, Yash has her publicly apologise to everyone, and declares that she has mental problems.

After the guards release Prithvi, Nandita is possessed again in her bathroom, with same lines appearing in the mirror. She goes to Prithvi for help, but he refuses her, showing her a new painting in which she is hanging herself and the same lines seem to appear behind her. He also shows her some news clippings about the death of the priest and David Cooper, with the same lines written behind them. Nandita thanks him and leaves to attend a party with Yash. There she is possessed and attacked again, and starts bleeding. Meanwhile, Prithvi prepares himself to help Nandita by burning the ominous painting of Nandita, which symbolises that he will protect her. He spots Nandita running from the party, apparently bleeding, and follows her. He finally catches up to her in a slum, where he sees her writing the same lines as before with her blood. He tries to stop her, but realises that she is possessed. She then tries to commit suicide but he prevents her from doing so. Yash arrives to find Nandita in Prithvi’s arms.

Yash agrees to help Nandita on the condition she leaves Prithvi, but she refuses his help and decides to stay with Prithvi and visit Kalindi to find out the truth. Prithvi and Nandita spend the night in a guest house, where Nandita is possessed once again. The spirit leads her to a forest where she is repeatedly attacked by paranormal beings. She receives visions of people hanging from trees. She then spots a well and somebody standing near it, and goes towards them. Just as she is about to jump, Prithvi catches her. It is revealed that the ‚well‘ was actually the steep edge of a cliff. They arrive at Kalindi and meet the priest’s wife (who is living life as a prostitute) who tells them that it was her husband who was evil and his death was not surprising, considering the crimes he had committed against innocent people in the name of religion. They decide to go to the police inspectors‘ house (the same one who investigated David Coopers‘ suicide), where they find him completely crazy and are unable to prevent him from committing suicide.

Nandita and Prithvi soon continue their journey by jeep. One night while travelling, they are attacked by animals. Nandita escapes the jeep and heads towards the trees, where she finds the same well. This time, before Prithvi can save her, she jumps into it. Prithvi follows her. Inside the well, Nandita comes to know that it was Prithvi’s father, Veer Pratap Singh (Jackie Shroff), who was possessing her. It so happened that he discovered that the Kalindi chemical plant dumps its toxins into a lake where thousands gathered once a year to bathe in a sacred ritual. He lodges a complaint against David Cooper but is warned by the policeman and the priest against taking any action, or his life will be in peril. He merely replies, „Tum ashudh Ho, andar sey sadh chuke ho“. Veer Pratap tries to tell the truth to everyone, but is killed by the goons of the priest and his body is dumped in the same well. His spirit returns for his revenge. He kills David Cooper, and the policeman and priest who sided with David. Prithvi finally learns the truth, but is still confused as to why Nandita was used for this. They come to know that it was Yash who had all the proof of Veer Singh’s death, but he had sold those proofs to David in return for sponsorship of his show. Nandita tries to escape with the proof but is just about shot by Yash, when Prithvi saves her. Unfortunately for both, Prithvi is stabbed by Yash. In the end however, the spirit of Veer attacks and kills Yash. Before moving on, Veer heals Prithvi’s wounds after which Nandita and Prithvi are reunited.

Screenwriter Shagufta Rafiq in an interview stated that the story is weaved around Sant Kabir’s idiom, „Bura jo dekhan main chala, Bura na milya koi; Jo dil khoja apna, Ta mujh sa bura na koi„, which means that the evil is within oneself and that is the message of the film. The director was changed from Vikram Bhatt (who was the original Raaz director) to Mohit Suri. Suri had reportedly added a lot of dramatic space to the film and played around with visuals and sounds which led to an extraordinary pace. Suri got inspired about the movie after reading a lot on Hindu mythology, where good and evil are represented in stark contrast.

Also it was distributed through Sony BMG banner, however the prequel Raaz (2002) was distributed by Tips Industries.

Originally it was thought that Bipasha Basu would be called for RTMC since she hasn’t worked with the Bhatts post Jism. But later it was announced that she has been dropped and Kangana Ranaut took her place. Even Amrita Rao was also considered but she passed the opportunity. Emraan Hashmi joined the cast taking over from Dino Morea. Dino expressed his disappointment with the decision by saying „I’m not disappointed but definitely baffled. How can they make a Raaz 2 without anyone from the original cast? How can it be a sequel, then?“ Later it was announced that Raaz – The Mystery Continues is not a sequel to the original movie. Adhyayan Suman plays Yash, a documentary filmmaker who is perceived as an atheist and believes in scientific rationale behind everything. His beliefs are challenged in the film. He reportedly called this film his debut, although he debuted in Bollywood with the 2008 film Haal-e-dil. Actress Sonal Chauhan was also reported to play a part in the movie, however she could not be a part of the final cast. Incidentally, Kangana again plays a supermodel called Nandita in this film, right after Fashion. Since playing a supermodel, she had to reportedly undergo many types of looks and even changed her hair colour to red. Emraan Hashmi plays a dark character as the painter, Prithvi, who has no contact with the outside world. His character is the main link to the fate of Kangana’s character. According to the actor, though comparisons are evident with the earlier Raaz, this film has a different plot and will give a new definition to the horror genre. Veteran actor Jackie Shroff was reported to be playing Kangana’s father in the movie, which after release was revealed to be Emraan’s father’s character.

Filming for the film took place in Shimla unlike Coonoor which was used in Raaz. Some part of the filming also took place in Mumbai. According to sources Raaz – The Mystery Continues is the most expensive Bollywood horror movie. Kangana was paid INR 6 million for her role in the film. The film received an A certificate from the Censor Board, leading to a war of words between Mukesh Bhatt and the Board. Mukesh however denied these saying that „Raaz – TMC“ got a U/A certificate. Filming for the movie completed on 10 November 2008 at Mumbai. Indian Television and Film actor Sushant Singh Rajput of Kis Desh Mein Hai Meraa Dil and Pavitra Rishta fame assisted director Mohit Suri during the making of the movie

A one-minute 39 seconds teaser trailer for the movie was released by Emraan Hashmi on November along with the movie Fashion.

Sony BMG partnered with social networking site „Ibibo“ to launch a web application for the movie. The RTMC application allowed Ibibo waterproof tablet bag.com members to take part in a movie making contest whose winners got a chance to spend a day with Mohit Suri, director of Raaz, and got to learn the art of film making from him. Ashish Kashyap, CEO, Ibibo.com, said, „The Raaz – The Mystery Continues application on Ibibo.com reiterates our core value proposition to recognize talent and enable users to self express and engage with latest Bollywood content. This is a perfect example of a Bollywood movie promotion leveraging the power of social media on Ibibo.com.“

On 9 January 2009, the cast and crew of Raaz -The Mystery Continues which was Mahesh Bhatt, director Mohit Suri and lead actors Emraan Hashmi and Adhyayan Suman, held a discussion on horror films at Crossword Bookstores. They shared their views on horror as a genre and also about their upcoming film.[citation needed] The full theatrical trailer of the movie was released with movies like Ghajini and Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi. There was some tension in the Bhatt camp regarding the promotion as lead pairs Kangana Ranaut and Emraan Hashmi were unavailable for it and burden of promotion was left with newcomer Adhyayan Suman. However, the cast, including actors Emraan Hashmi and Kangana Ranaut, later appeared for the promotion of the movie at Bangalore.

The film released on 23 January, all over India. The movie was released with 70 prints overseas. The movie has been given a huge release. It is the biggest release ever of Emraan Hashmi beating the 525+ theatre release of Jannat by a huge margin. In India, the movie has been released on nearly 900 cinemas with 475 digital screens including 435 UFO’s and around 400 other cinemas. The film is also the biggest release ever for Vishesh films. The distributors of the film, Sony Pictures had some issues with the multiplexes but were resolved in time for the film to have clean release on 23rd. The UK release of the movie is handled by Tip Top Entertainment.

Early reception for the movie was mostly mixed. The Times of India gave 3 out of 5 stars saying that,“Emraan Hashmi & Kangana bring the Gangster magic again….they have done a good job whereas Adhyayan Suman shows promise.“ Bollywood Hungama gave a good review saying „On the whole, Raaz – The Mystery Continues is rich in the horror quotient and that is one of its major USPs, besides the highly competent performances by its principal cast and a lilting musical score. At the box-office, this one will continue the winning streak of Mahesh Bhatt and Mukesh Bhatt’s Vishesh Films. The 4-day weekend [Monday, January 26 in a holiday] will only cement its status further. Go for it!“. The lead actors were praised for their performance. In the review, „On the acting front, both Emraan and Kangana vie for top honours. Emraan is excellent. He conveys a lot through facial expressions and that’s the sign of a proficient actor. He’s just getting better and better with every film. Kangana is top notch. After Fashion, this one’s another power-packed performance from the actress. Adhyayan Suman is super-confident and registers a strong impact, especially towards the climax. He shows promise. Jackie Shroff is quite okay in a brief role.“ NDTV gave negative reviews for the movie saying „The first Raaz, which married the Hollywood film What Lies Beneath with the myth of Savitri who pursued Yamraj until her husband came back to life, had a cheesy appeal. This Raaz is a big bore. The scares are tired and Suri doesn’t know how to pace them out. So, every minute, something awful is happening, from a bull attack to mutilation and murder. Was I scared? Not once. This mystery was better left discontinued.“ AOL reviewer Noyon Jyoti Parasara too rated the film low. He gave the film a mere 2 out of 5 and said, „Raaz – The Mystery Continues, which with all its hype was supposed scare the lights out of you, could not make me bat an eyelid out of fear. So there go all expectations!.“

The film, upon its release on 23 January 2009, had a good response at the box office. According to Business Standard, the movie got the biggest weekend collections within January, grossing over Rs 125 million in the first three days of its release, ahead of some of the other releases in January so far like Slumdog Millionaire which managed to have grossed Rs 8–90 million. The movie is being played in the maximum shows across most multiplexes and recorded nearly 80 per cent collections in the first three days of its release. It opened to good response in single cinemas across the country on Friday with over 70–75% collections. In the multiplexes the opening was in the range of 65–70%. The film grossed around 47.5 million net collections on day one. At the end of the first week the movie grossed over 300 million at the box office, making it the highest grossing horror film in India. Trade Analysts have attributed the success of the film to a combination of three factors – a strong product from Vishesh Films, excellent marketing from Sony BMG and a very strong word of mouth. Raaz 2 grossed 345.0 million (US$5.1 million) at the end of theatrical run in India and it is declared a Hit.

However, in the UK the movie did mediocre business, debuting at number 25 and collecting £27,710 [approx. Rs. 1873,000] on 17 screens, with the per screen average working out to £1,630.

The music of this movie is released by Sony BMG. The first music video, Maahi, of the album was released on 6 December 2008. The second music video was „Soniyo“. After that, „Maahi (Rock With Me)“ and „O Jaana (Dance With Me)“ mixes are released with backup music videos. The last music video of the song, „Kaisa Ye Raaz Hai“, was released in the 2nd week of January 2009.

The music received positive reviews and tracks like Maahi, Kaisa Ye Raaz Hai and Soniyo were particularly praised. NDTV gave a good review saying „Overall, the music of Raaz – The Mystery Continues has its own place under the sun. It is definitely worth listening.“

One India gave a positive review saying „The music of Raaz – TMC indeed impresses, the soundtrack here is yet another good addition to the enviable music catalogue of the Bhatts and Emraan would certainly have some more chartbusters to add to his name. As for the last question i.e. whether Raaz – TMC matches up to Nadeem-Shravan’s Raaz, then well, let’s put it this way that albums like Aashiqui, Raaz or a Saajan are made only once and there shouldn’t even be a conscious effort to replicate or surpass them. In this regard, the music of Raaz – TMC has its own place under the sun and what matters in the end is whether it works for the film or not. Well, the answer for this one is a firm Yes! Thaindian News also reviewed the music for the film. They said „“Soniyo“ is the best number of the album. Sung by Sonu Nigam and Shreya Ghoshal, the pleasant track moves at a very steady pace. Kumar keeps the lyrics as simple as the composition and it gives the singers ample space. Consisting mainly of melodic, slow paced tracks, the frontrunners of this album are two fast numbers. Both „O Jaana“ and „Soniyo“ are the highlights of the pack. But at the above the song Maahi became a blockbuster hit after its release.

The soundtrack of Raaz The Mystery Continues is composed by Sharib-Toshi, Raju Singh, Pranay M Rijia & Gourov Dasgupta. Originally Nadeem Shravan were to compose the soundtrack and they came on board too but were taken out as there music was proved to be outdated by the producers then Pritam was to compose for the same but was replaced by the current music directors. Sharib-Toshi mark their debut with this film while Raju Singh composes songs for a soundtrack after many years, Govrav Dasgupta & Pranay M Rijia are new comers. The Lyrics for Soniyo & Soniyo (From The Heart Mix) are penned by Kumaar. All other songs are penned by Sayeed Quadri. Songs are as follows :-

With Raaz TMC getting an encouraging opening, a third instalment of the series, Raaz 3 was released on 7 September 2012. The film received an overwhelming response at the box office and emerged as the highest grossing film of the trilogy.

A fourth film, Raaz Reboot, was released on 16 September 2016.

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