Arrows A11

La Arrows A11 fu una vettura di Formula 1 impiegata dalla scuderia inglese nel corso della stagione 1989 e per un Gran Premio nella stagione seguente online football kits. Fu, come le precedenti Arrows A10 e Arrows A10B, disegnata da Ross Brawn; con delle linee aerodinamiche più ricercate era più compatta delle altre due. Ciò provocò dei problemi per l’altezza del pilota Eddie Cheever; possedeva inoltre un nuovo alettone davanti a delle derivazioni verticali che avevano il compito di facilitare il passaggio dell’aria verso i pontoni. Spinta da un motore Ford Cosworth, e non più dal Megatron turbo non più consentito dai regolamenti, era costruita in carbonfibra e kevlar monoscocca, ed era gommata Goodyear.

Ottenne nel corso dell’anno 13 punti, frutto di un terzo posto (con Eddie Cheever nel Gran Premio degli Stati Uniti), tre quinti posti (due con Derek Warwick), e tre sesti. Nei gran premi di Italia e Gran Bretagna Cheever non si qualificò, mentre in quello di Monaco Warwick partì dalla terza fila stainless steel mug.

Altri progetti

History of the Jews in 18th-century Poland

Jewish Polish history during the 18th century:

With the accession to the throne of the Saxon dynasty the Jews completely lost the support of the government. Although Augustus II the Strong (1697–1733), and August III Wettin (1733–1763) officially confirmed at their coronations the Jewish charters, such formal declarations were insufficient to guard the already limited rights of the Jews against the hostile elements, owing to the disorders prevailing in the kingdom blade meat tenderizer. The government was anxious only to collect from the Kahals the taxes, which were constantly being made heavier despite the Jews having not yet recovered from the ruinous events of the Cossacks‘ uprising and the Swedish invasion. The Jews‘ plight was compounded by the fact that the Sejm, composed of nobility and Catholic clergy, blocked all attempts to levy taxes on nobility or clergy, thus only townsfolk and Jews were taxed.

The szlachta and the townsfolk were increasingly hostile to the Jews, as the religious tolerance that dominated the mentality of the previous generations of the Commonwealth citizens was slowly forgotten. In their intolerance, the citizens of the Commonwealth now approached the „standards“ that dominated most of the contemporary European countries, and many Jews felt betrayed by the country they once viewed as their haven. In the larger cities, like Poznań and Kraków, quarrels between the Christian and Jewish inhabitants were common and they assumed a very violent aspect. Based originally on economic grounds, they were carried over into the religious arena; and it was evident that the seeds which the Jesuits had planted had finally borne fruit. Ecclesiastical councils displayed great hatred toward the Jews. Attacks on the latter by students, the so-called Schüler-Gelauf, became every-day occurrences in the large cities, the police regarding such scholastic riots with indifference. Lawlessness, violence, and disorder reigned supreme at that time in Poland, marking the beginning of the downfall of the kingdom. In order to protect themselves against such occurrences, the Jewish communities in many cities made annual contributions to the local Catholic schools.

The decade from the Cossacks‘ uprising until after the Swedish war (1648–1658) left a deep and lasting impression not only on the social life of the Polish-Lithuanian Jews, but on their spiritual life as well. The intellectual output of the Jews of Poland was reduced. The Talmudic learning which up to that period had been the common possession of the majority of the people became accessible to a limited number of students only. What religious study there was became overly formalized, some rabbis busied themselves with quibbles concerning religious laws steel water glass; others wrote commentaries on different parts of the Talmud in which hair-splitting arguments were raised and discussed; and at times these arguments dealt with matters which were of no practical moment. At the same time, many miracle-workers made their appearance among the Jews of Poland, as even famous rabbis of that time devoted themselves to kabbalistic practices, this mysticism culminated in a series of false „Messianic“ movements, and Sabbatianism was succeeded by Frankism among the Jews of Poland.

In this time of mysticism and overly formal rabbinism came the teachings of Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov, or BeShT, (1698–1760), which had a profound effect on the Jews of Eastern Europe and Poland in particular. His disciples taught and encouraged the new fervent brand of Orthodox Judaism based on Kabbalah known as Hasidism. One of those great disciples and teachers was Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk (1717–1786). Many of these disciples became Rebbes themselves with followings, as with the Gerer Hasidic dynasty which was begun by Rabbi Yitzchak Meir Alter (1798–1866). Hasidism gave a ready response to the burning desire of the common people in its simple, stimulating, and comforting faith. In contradistinction to other sectarian teaching, early Hasidism aimed not at dogmatic or ritual reform, but at a deeper psychological one. Its aim was to change not the belief, but the believer. It created a new type of religious man, a type that placed emotion above reason and rites, and religious exaltation above knowledge.

The rise of Hasidic Judaism within Poland’s borders and beyond has had a great influence on the rise of Haredi Judaism all over the world, with a continuous influence that has been felt from the inception of the Hasidic movements and its dynasties by famous rebbes until the present time. The following are noteworthy:

Disorder and anarchy reigned supreme in Poland during the second half of the 18th century, from the accession to the throne of its last king, Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski (1764–1795). This state of affairs was due to the haughty demeanor of the nobility toward the lower classes. The necessity for reform was recognized by the king and by many of the Commonwealth citizens; but Poland was already in the grasp of Russia, and little could be done in this direction. Jewish affairs were sadly neglected, the government seeking merely the extortion of larger taxes; thus the Sejm which met at Warsaw in 1764 for the discussion of measures of reform considered the Jews only to the extent of changing the tax system. About this time, and as a direct consequence of the disorganization of Poland, the disastrous incursions of the brigand bands known as the Haidamaka took place. The movement originated in Podolia and in that part of Ukraine which still belonged to Poland.

These and other internal disorders combined to hasten the end of Poland as a sovereign state. In 1772, in the aftermath of the Confederation of Bar, the outlying provinces were divided among the three neighboring nations, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Russia secured a considerable part of the territory now known as Belarus; Austria obtained Galicia and a part of Podolia; while Prussia received Pomerelia and the lands lying along the lower Vistula. Jews were most numerous in the territories that fell to the lot of Austria and Russia.

The permanent council established at the instance of the Russian government (1773–1788) served as the highest administrative tribunal, and occupied itself with the elaboration of a plan that would make practicable the reorganization of Poland on a more rational basis. The progressive elements in Polish society recognized the urgency of popular education as the very first step toward reform. In 1773 the Society of Jesus in Poland was abolished by Pope Clement XIV, who thus freed Polish youth from the demoralizing influences of Jesuitism. The famous Komisja Edukacji Narodowej („Commission of National Education“), first Ministry of Education in the world, was established in 1773 and founded numerous new schools and remodeled the old ones. One of the members of the commission, kanclerz Andrzej Zamoyski, along with others, demanded that the inviolability of their persons and property should be guaranteed and that religious toleration should be to a certain extent granted them; but he insisted that Jews living in the cities should be separated from the Christians, that those of them having no definite occupation should be banished from the kingdom, and that even those engaged in agriculture should not be allowed to possess land. On the other hand, some szlachta and intellectuals proposed a national system of government bpa free drink bottles, of the civil and political equality of the Jews. This was the only example in modern Europe before the French Revolution of tolerance and broad-mindedness in dealing with the Jewish question. On 3 May 1791 the Great Sejm passed the second oldest constitution of the world, the Polish Constitution of 3 May. But all these reforms were too late. Through the intrigues and bribery of Catherine II of Russia the Confederation of Targowica was formed, to which belonged the adherents of the old order of things. A Russian army invaded Poland, and soon after a Prussian one followed.

A second partition of Poland was made July 17, 1793, Russia taking a large part of White Russia, half of Volhynia, all of Podolia, and the part of Ukraine which had previously been retained by Poland, and Prussians taking Great Poland (Poznań).

A general uprising (Kościuszko Uprising) of the citizens of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1794. Tadeusz Kościuszko was made its leader and dictator, and succeeded in driving the Russians out of Warsaw. Dissensions, however, arose among the Poles, and the Russians and Prussians again entered Poland in force. Kościuszko was decisively defeated at Battle of Maciejowice October 10, 1794; Alexander Suvorov entered Warsaw on November 8, and Polish resistance came to an end. The Jews took an active part in this last struggle of Poland for independence. With the permission of Kościuszko, Berek Joselewicz (1764–1809) formed a regiment of light cavalry consisting entirely of Jews. This regiment accomplished many deeds of valor on the field of battle and distinguished itself especially at the siege of Warsaw, nearly all its members perishing in the defence and eventual massacre of Praga, the fortified suburb of the capital.

The third and final partition of Poland took place in 1795. Russia acquired the whole of Lithuania and Courland; Austria, the remainder of Galicia, and Podolia, including Kraków; Prussia glass water bottle with measurements, the rest of Poland, including Warsaw, the capital; and with that Poland ceased to exist as an independent country. The great bulk of the Jewish population was transferred to Russia, and thus became subjects of that empire, although in the first half of the 19th century some semblance of a Polish state was preserved, greatly diminished, especially in the form of the Congress Poland (1815–1831).


The Müggelsee ( German pronunciation ), also known as the Großer Müggelsee, is a lake in the eastern suburbs of Berlin

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, the capital city of Germany. It is the largest of the Berlin lakes by area, with an area of 7.4 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi), a length of 4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) and a breadth of 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi).

The lake is in the Berlin district of Treptow-Köpenick. The suburbs of Köpenick, Friedrichshagen, Rahnsdorf and a little section of Müggelheim border on the lake.

The lake itself is 8 metres (26 ft) deep at its deepest point. At its south end are hills called the ‚Müggelberge‘, which are 115 metres (377 ft) high; they were formed during the Pleistocene (as a kettle hole, remaining at Weichselian glaciation). On the so-called ‚Kleiner Müggelberg‘, the much-visited and popular ‚Müggelturm‘ (a tower) was built, the first one in 1889 (destroyed in a fire in 1958), and the current one in 1960/61. The tower offers extensive views over the lake and the forests against the Berlin skyline.

The River Spree flows into the lake via the smaller Kleiner Müggelsee, which is only 0.16 square kilometres (0.062&nbsp ways to tenderize steak;sq mi) in area. The Friedrichshagen waterworks on the northern bank of the Müggelsee obtains most of its water from the lake. There are also numerous deep wells located near the banks, and are mainly fed by the bank filtrate and only to a small share by groundwater water sports bottle.

The first uses of the word component „Müggel“ are, according to Gerhard Schlimpert in the „Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis“, in 1394 as „den Tyns in der Miggel“ and in 1487 as „von der Miggelseh“. The etymology remains unclear. The traditional derivative from Common Slavonic mogyla = „grave, grave hill, earth hill“ is rejected by Schlimpert as not durable. A pre-Slavonic, Germanic origin from a Proto-Indo-European root is more probable: migh-, mighla = „fog, cloud“: compare Dutch miggelen = „drizzle“ belongs. Analyses say that the word component „heim“ in the name was brought around 1750 by settlers from the Palatinate from their homeland Odernheim, according to Schlimpert.[citation needed]

In December 2013, a lake on the Saturnian moon Titan was officially named after Lake Müggelsee by the International Astronomical Union. That lake is composed of liquid methane and ethane, and is located at 84°26N and 203°30W on Titan’s globe.

The Chelsea Girls

The Chelsea Girls ist ein Film des US-amerikanischen Malers und Multimedia-Künstlers Andy Warhol aus dem Jahr 1966. Er ist die erste seiner Produktionen aus der frühen Experimentalfilm-Phase, der weltweit in den Kinos gezeigt wurde, und der erste kommerzielle Erfolg für Warhol als Filmemacher.

Gezeigt wird das (fiktive) Leben von Bewohnern des Chelsea Hotels im New Yorker Stadtteil Chelsea, einer ebenso legendären wie heruntergekommenen Künstler-Absteige. Die „Schauspieler“ rekrutieren sich aus den Bewohnern, Besuchern und Freunden der Factory, Warhols Atelier in Manhattan. Wirklich im Hotel wohnten nur das Fotomodell Susan Bottomly, als „Superstar“ International Velvet genannt, Warhols Assistentin Brigid Berlin und Nico.

Der Film besteht aus zwölf gut halbstündigen Episoden (jede 16 mm Filmrolle hat 32 min. Laufzeit), in denen jeweils ein oder mehrere „Bewohner“ des Chelsea vorgestellt werden. Auf der rechten und der linken Leinwandhälfte sind jeweils parallele Handlungsabläufe zu sehen. Er setzt sich (nach der von Paul Morrissey kompilierten Video/DVD-Fassung) wie folgt zusammen:

Kennzeichnend in allen Episoden außer der ersten und der letzten ist die unterschwellige oder offene Gewalttätigkeit der Akteure, die in enger Verbindung zu deren allgegenwärtigem Drogengenuss steht. Brigid verpasst Ingrid eine hohe Dosis Amphetamin, indem sie mit der Nadel durch deren Hose sticht. Mary übt Psychoterror auf ihre Mitbewohnerinnen aus und verprügelt Angelina, ebenso wie Ondine seine Filmpartnerin Rona schlägt, nachdem er sie verbal fertiggemacht und sich Kokain injiziert hat. Der trällernde Transvestit Mario wird von Ed und Patrick aus dem Zimmer gejagt, Ingrid und Ondine übertreffen sich an gegenseitigen Beleidigungen, Brigid beschimpft ihre Telefonpartner. All dieser Narzissmus wird von Warhols Kamera gnadenlos eingefangen und dokumentiert. Gezeigt werden die „dunklen“ eco friendly reusable water bottles, abgründigen Seiten des modernen Lebens in der Metropole New York.

Der Film wurde im Sommer (Juni bis September) 1966 gedreht; Drehorte waren das Hotel selbst, die „Factory“ und verschiedene Wohnungen einschließlich des Velvet Underground-Apartments in der West 3rd Street in Greenwich Village. Bis auf zwei Szenen sind alle Dialoge water bottle reusable, zu denen Ronald Tavel das Drehbuch schrieb, improvisiert. Ursprünglich zum Film gehörte eine Sequenz mit Edie Sedgwick, die sich kurz nach den Dreharbeiten von Warhol getrennt hatte und verlangte, dass dieser Abschnitt herausgenommen werden sollte.

Eine erste Aufführung des noch unfertigen Films fand Ende August 1966 im Presidio-Theater in Los Angeles statt, die Premiere in der Film-Makers’ Cinematheque, Jonas Mekas´ Club für Underground-Filme in New York, am 15. September 1966. In regulären Kinos lief der Film dann ab Dezember des Jahres. Er war für die Aufführungen zunächst „offen“ konzipiert, so dass die einzelnen Filmrollen je nach Gusto des Vorführers eingelegt werden konnten; erst später gab es einen „Abspielplan“. Besonders erwähnt werden muss auf filmtechnischer Seite die so genannte Splitscreen-Technik: Auf der (in zwei oder drei Projektionsflächen) geteilten Leinwand spielen sich mehrere Handlungen parallel ab, eine revolutionäre Technik, die drei Jahre später von den Produzenten des Woodstock-Films aufgegriffen wurde und in den 70er Jahren besonders beliebt war.

Das Echo auf den Film schwankte zwischen aggressiver Ablehnung und Unverständnis, die meisten Kritiken waren vernichtend. Aufführungen in Boston wurden von der Polizei gestürmt und der Kinobesitzer wegen der Verbreitung obszönen Materials verurteilt.

Erst in den letzten Jahren hat die Kunstkritik eine ungeheure ästhetische Sensibilität Warhols bei der Komposition der Bilder, der raffinierten Beleuchtung und der Farbgebung gesehen und den Film als gültiges Kunstwerk bezeichnet.


Le Wielkopolski (polonais : koń wielkopolski) est une race chevaline originaire de Pologne. Race à sang chaud la plus importante en Pologne, elle est très proche du Trakehner allemand. Cheval de sport typique, il est employé pour tous les sports équestres. Depuis peu, la Pologne trouve des moyens pour promouvoir la race, issue d’un croisement entre des races polonaises déjà établies, le mazurien et le poznan where to buy a meat tenderizer. Le Wielkopolski est cependant en danger d’extinction, après une sévère chute d’effectifs au début du XXIe siècle.

Dans le Guide Delachaux, le nom est traduit, de façon erronée, par « grand cheval polonais ». En réalité, koń wielkopolski se traduit par « cheval de Grande-Pologne ». Cette race est récente, puisque son développement remonte aux années qui suivent la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Elle serait issue d’un croisement entre deux races de chevaux de selle polonais, le Mazurien et le Poznań.

Un registre d’élevage est tenu depuis la fin du XIXe siècle. La race a été influencée par le Trakehner, le Pur-sang et le Hanovrien.

En 1993, l’effectif est de 120 000 individus.

D’après le guide Delachaux, il toise de 1,57 m à 1,68 m, parfois plus. CAB International indique 1,54 m à 1,65 m. Il est généralement plus grand que le Malopolski.. La tête est petite, au profil rectiligne. L’encolure est longue, le garrot sorti, le poitrail large. L’épaule est plutôt longue, le dos droit et long, la croupe légèrement inclinée. Les membres sont allongés et musclés, les canons courts, les pieds de bonne qualité. Les crins sont fins.

C’est un cheval vigoureux et à la physionomie intelligente. Il est doux et courageux. Les robes les plus fréquentes sont le bai, l’alezan et le gris.

Le Wielkopolski fut d’abord utilisé pour des travaux agricoles de traction légère, il sert désormais beaucoup plus pour l’équitation de compétition, et surtout comme cheval de selle ou d’attelage.

La race est propre à la Pologne. Elle est notamment originaire du centre-ouest du pays hydration backpack for running. Les effectifs ont beaucoup chuté au début du XXIe siècle. L’étude menée par l’Université d’Uppsala, publiée en août 2010 pour la FAO, signale le Wielkopolski comme race locale d’Europe qui n’est pas menacée d’extinction. En 2012, d’après CAB International les effectifs se situent à environ 2 500 têtes, avec programme de conservation. D’après Tadeusz Szulc, en 2010, le stud-book comptait 2 304 sujets inscrits, dont 70 étalons. L’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO) classe désormais (2017) le Wielkopolski comme étant « en danger » d’extinction. Le dernier recensement disponible sur DAD-IS, celui de 2016, donne un effectif de 1 400 têtes, avec tendance à la baisse.

L’auteure du guide Delachaux (2016) prétend au contraire que cette race serait « appréciée en Pologne et de plus en plus recherchée », ce qui est contraire aux statistiques officielles.

White Fox Boutique

White Fox Boutique is an Australian online fashion retailer aimed for young adults. Founded in 2013, White Fox Boutique sells various brands as well as White Fox The Label and Fox Swim which is sold exclusively on the White Fox Boutique website. To an international customer audience they offer womenswear, footwear, swimwear, accessories and beauty products.

Clothing and accessories from White Fox Boutique have been featured in multiple magazine for spread shoots, Get the Look articles and celebrity shots and paparazzi photographs

In 2016 White Fox Boutique participated in the Vogue Online Shopping Night. which happens twice a year, which includes retailers such as David Jones, Sabo Skirt and French Connection.

In 2015, White Fox Boutique released their exclusive range of women’s clothing called White Fox The Label Orange Runner Waist Pack. Designed by their in house team, this range started off as the essential basics clothing hydration bottles for runners.

In 2016, they released their first collection of swimwear under the new Fox Swim label. Then in December of that year, releasing a collaboration with the Youtube celebrity and social media influencer Shani Grimmond and Fox Swim, creating 8 swimwear items.

On August 1, 2017 cashmere shaver, White Fox Boutique released a collaboration with Youtube celebrity and social media influencer Shannon Harris, Shaaanxo. Releasing 16 items what tenderizes meat, including 4 jewellery items in collaboration with MINC Collection jewellery and 1 pair of footwear.

In August, a new range of activewear was announced and due to launch in October 2017.

Mistrzostwa Europy w Lekkoatletyce 2010 – sztafeta 4 × 100 m kobiet

Sztafeta 4 × 100 metrów kobiet – jedna z konkurencji rozegranych podczas lekkoatletycznych mistrzostw Europy na Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys w Barcelonie.

W konkurencji wystąpiła reprezentacja Polski w składzie:Marika Popowicz, Daria Korczyńska, Marta Jeschke, Weronika Wedler

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1938: III Rzesza (Kohl, Krauß, Albus phone bag, Kühnel) • 1946: Holandia (van der Kade-Koudijs, Witziers-Timmer, Adema, Blankers-Koen) • 1950: Wielka Brytania (Hay, Desforges, Hall, Foulds) • 1954: ZSRR (Kriepkina, Ulitkina, Itkina, Turowa) • 1958: ZSRR (Kriepkina, Kepp, Poljakowa, Masłowskaja) • 1962: Polska (Ciepły, Sobotta, Szyroka, Piątkowska) • 1966: Polska (Bednarek, Straszyńska, Kirszenstein, Kłobukowska) • 1969: NRD (Höfer, Meißner, Podeswa, Vogt) • 1971: RFN (Schittenhelm, Helten, Irrgang, Mickler) • 1974: NRD (Maletzki, Stecher, Heinich, Eckert) • 1978: ZSRR (Anisimowa, Masłakowa, Kondratjewa, Storożkowa) • 1982: NRD (Walther, Wöckel, Rieger, Göhr) • 1986: NRD (Gladisch-Möller, Günther, Auerswald, Göhr) • 1990: NRD (Gladisch-Möller, Krabbe, Behrendt, Günther) • 1994: Niemcy (Paschke, Knoll, Zipp, Lichtenhagen) • 1998: Francja (Benth, Bangué, Félix, Arron) • 2006: Rosja (Guszczina, Rusakowa, Chabarowa, Grigorjewa) • 2010: Ukraina (Powch, Pohrebniak waist hydration pack, Riemień, Bryzhina) • 2014: Wielka Brytania (Philip, Nelson, Williams, Henry) • 2016: Holandia (Samuel, Schippers, Van Schagen, Sedney)

Lanthanum manganite

Lanthanum manganite is an inorganic compound with the formula LaMnO3, often abbreviated as LMO. Lanthanum manganite is formed in the perovskite structure, consisting of oxygen octahedra with a central Mn atom how to tender beef. The cubic perovskite structure is distorted into an orthorhombic structure by a strong Jahn–Teller distortion of the oxygen octahedra.

Lanthanum manganite is an electrical insulator and an A-type antiferromagnet. It is the parent compound of several important alloys, often termed rare-earth manganites or colossal magnetoresistance oxides

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. These families include lanthanum strontium manganite, lanthanum calcium manganite and others.

In lanthanum manganite running belt nz, both the La and the Mn are in the +3 oxidation state. Substitution of some of the La atoms by divalent atoms such as Sr or Ca induces a similar amount of tetravalent Mn+4 atoms. Such substitution, or doping can induce various electronic effects thermos hydration bottle replacement lid, which form the basis of a rich and complex electron correlation phenomena that yield diverse electronic phase diagrams in these alloys.

Abbaye de Georgenthal

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Thuringe

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Allemagne

L‘abbaye de Georgenthal est une ancienne abbaye cistercienne à Georgenthal, dans le Land de Thuringe, en Allemagne.

L’abbaye est fondée en 1142 grâce au comte Sizzo III. von Schwarzburg-Kevernburg (de) et occupée l’année suivante par des moines venant de l’abbaye de Morimond, dont Everhard von Berg (de), le fils d’Adolphe Ier de Berg. Le monastère obtient une grande influence et des propriétés foncières. Il atteint son apogée au début du XVIe siècle. Au cours de la guerre des Paysans allemands safe reusable water bottles, en 1525, l’abbaye est pillée et presque entièrement détruite, les moines fuient vers la ville de Gotha (à 16 km au sud de Georgenthal). Jean de Saxe prononce la dissolution en 1528 bpa free plastic water bottles. Les bâtiments sont démontés comme une carrière.

De l’abbaye, il ne reste aujourd’hui plus que des ruines ; les fondations sont mises au jour entre 1840 et 1906. L’église

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, probablement le premier bâtiment en voûte de Thuringe, est une basilique à trois nefs, avec à l’origine un chœur en cinq absidioles, puis vers 1250 un grand chœur rectangulaire inspiré de l’abbaye de Cîteaux. Au nord de l’église se trouvent les restes de bâtiments (sans doute les lieux de vie) avec deux salles à trois nefs séparées par deux couloirs. La clôture religieuse et le cloître sont au sud.

Il y a aussi un grenier (sans doute d’abord une infirmerie) à l’ouest de l’église, un bâtiment avec une grande maçonnerie qui avait une rose entrelacée au pignon (aujourd’hui au musée d’histoire locale). On trouve aussi un „château“ (une maison de soins infirmiers), construit au cours des XVIe et XVIIe siècles, qui devait aussi accueillir les hôtes. La conciergerie avec des voûtes date du XIIIe siècle.

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Şanlıurfa (stad)

Şanlıurfa of Urfa (ook los geschreven als Şanlı Urfa, Turks: şanlı = „glorierijk“, Koerdisch: Riha; in de oudheid Edessa of Antiochië aan de Callirrhoë) is een stad in Zuidoost-Turkije, met een geschatte bevolking van 390.000 inwoners (2004). Ze ligt op een vruchtbare vlakte, aan drie kanten omringd door bergen. Ze vormt de hoofdplaats van de provincie Şanlıurfa, met een bevolking van ongeveer anderhalf miljoen mensen (2004). Het dialect dat er gesproken wordt, wordt ook Urfa genoemd.

De stad is via grote verkeerswegen verbonden met Gaziantep 150 km naar het westen, met Mardin 250 km naar het oosten, met Diyarbakır 250 km naar het noorden en met Syrië 75 km naar het zuiden.

De economie berust vooral op de landbouw en de veeteelt van de omringende regio; de voornaamste exportproducten zijn boter en katoen.

De voornaamste bezienswaardigheid van Urfa is zijn oude citadel, gelegen op een van de heuvels boven de stad. Daarnaast zijn ook delen van de oude stadsmuren bewaard, naast fragmenten van de waterbeheersingswerken die hier in de 6e eeuw werden opgetrokken. Islamitische monumenten zijn de 17e-eeuwse madrassa en de moskee van Abd ar-Rahman.

Urfa’s eeuwenoud belang ligt bij zijn strategische positie op de pas die de handelsweg tussen Anatolië (Centraal-Turkije) en Noord-Mesopotamië (Noord-Irak) beheerst.

De plaats is al sinds duizenden jaren bewoond; ze werd voor het eerst in het Aramees opgetekend als Urhai. In de plaatselijke overlevering wordt de stad in verband gebracht met aartsvader Abraham. Dat komt doordat zich in de buurt van Balikligöl een grot bevindt waarvan men aanneemt dat hij daar zou zijn geboren. Moslims geloven dat Abraham een profeet was eco friendly reusable water bottles.

In de 3e eeuw v.Chr. verovert Alexander de Grote de stad en sticht er een militaire nederzetting en vernoemt haar naar Edessa, de hoofdstad van zijn vaderland Macedonië.

In de 2e eeuw v. Chr. ontstond hier het koninkrijk Osroene. Toen koning Abgar in de 1e eeuw christen werd en veel inwoners van het land zijn voorbeeld volgden verrezen overal kerken en kloosters. Omstreeks 150 zou hier een van de belangrijkste bisschopszetels van de Syrisch-Orthodoxe Kerk van Antiochië zijn gevestigd. Edessa ontwikkelde zich reeds vroeg tot een centrum van christelijke godgeleerdheid. Een belangrijke stimulans werd gevormd door de Syrische christenen met hun beroemde theologische school met vele vermaarde leraren, waaronder Efrem de Syriër.

Aangenomen wordt dat de oudste christenen van Edessa nazaten waren van de oergemeente te Jeruzalem. Edessa wordt tevens de stad van de apostel Thomas genoemd. Volgens de overlevering zou Thomas opdracht gegeven hebben om er het evangelie te verkondigen. Volgens dezelfde overlevering zou hij hier ook begraven zijn. Omstreeks 380 bezocht de pelgrim Egeria er het graf van Sint-Thomas.

In de 7e eeuw kwam de stad in handen van het Arabische Rijk maar in 1030-1031 werd Edessa veroverd door de Byzantijnen onder leiding van generaal Georgios Maniakes, ze zou ruim 50 jaar Byzantijns blijven tot 1086-1087.

In 1098 wordt de stad ingenomen door de kruisvaarders gedurende de Eerste Kruistocht. In 1147 werden ze weer verdreven door de Turkse Seltsjoeken. Daarna zouden verschillende heersers komen en gaan. In 1637 lijfden de Ottomanen de stad bij hun rijk in en kreeg de stad haar huidige naam

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In 1830 komt de stad korte tijd onder de controle van de Egyptische onderkoning Mohammed Ali Pasja. De vervolging van de Arameestalige christenen in 1916 zorgde ervoor dat de christelijke bevolking van Şanlıurfa nu zo goed als verdwenen is.

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