Amedeo Avogadro

Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 1776, Turin, Piedmont-Sardinia – 9 July 1856), was an Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro’s law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules. In tribute to him, the number of elementary entities (atoms, molecules, ions or other particles) in 1 mole of a substance, 6.02214179(30)×1023, is known as the Avogadro constant socks china, one of the seven SI base units and represented by NA.

Avogadro was born at Turin to a noble family of Piedmont-Sardinia in the year 1776. That city, now part of Italy, was then of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

He graduated in ecclesiastical law at the late age of 31 and began to practice. Soon after, he dedicated himself to physics and mathematics (then called positive philosophy), and in 1809 started teaching them at a liceo (high school) in Vercelli, where his family lived and had some property.

In 1811, he published an article with the title Essai d’une manière de déterminer les masses relatives des molécules élémentaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons („Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies and the Proportions by Which They Enter These Combinations“), which contains Avogadro’s hypothesis. Avogadro submitted this essay to a Jean-Claude Delamétherie’s Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d’Histoire naturelle („Journal of Physics, Chemistry and Natural History“, Piedmont at the time forming part of the First French Empire).

In 1820, he became a professor of physics at the University of Turin. Turin was now the capital of the restored Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel I. Avogadro was active in the revolutionary movement of March 1821. As a result, he lost his chair in 1823 (or, as the university officially declared, it was „very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties, in order to be able to give better attention to his researches“). Eventually, King Charles Albert granted a Constitution (Statuto Albertino) in 1848. Well before this, Avogadro had been recalled to the university in Turin in 1833, where he taught for another twenty years.

Little is known about Avogadro’s private life, which appears to have been sober and religious. He married Felicita Mazzé and had six children.[dubious ] Avogadro held posts dealing with statistics, meteorology, and weights and measures (he introduced the metric system into Piedmont) and was a member of the Royal Superior Council on Public Instruction.

He died on 9 July 1856.

In honor of Avogadro’s contributions to molecular theory, the number of molecules in one mole was named Avogadro’s number, NA or „Avogadro’s constant“. It is approximately 6.0221415×1023. Avogadro’s number is used to compute the results of chemical reactions. It allows chemists to determine amounts of substances produced in a given reaction to a great degree of accuracy.

Johann Josef Loschmidt first calculated the value of Avogadro’s number, often referred to as the Loschmidt number in German-speaking countries (Loschmidt constant now has another meaning).

Avogadro’s Law states that the relationship between the masses of the same volume of same gases (at the same temperature and pressure) corresponds to the relationship between their respective molecular weights. Hence, the relative molecular mass of a gas can be calculated from the mass of sample of known volume.

Avogadro developed this hypothesis after Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac had published in 1808 his law on volumes (and combining gases). The greatest problem Avogadro had to resolve was the confusion at that time regarding atoms and molecules. One of his most important contributions was clearly distinguishing one from the other, stating that gases are composed of molecules, and these molecules are composed of atoms. For instance, John Dalton did not consider this possibility. Avogadro did not actually use the word „atom“ as the words „atom“ and „molecule“ were used almost without difference. He believed that there were three kinds of „molecules,“ including an „elementary molecule“ (our „atom“). Also, more attention was given to the definition of mass, as distinguished from weight.

In 1815, he published Mémoire sur les masses relatives des molécules des corps simples, ou densités présumées de leur gaz, et sur la constitution de quelques-uns de leur composés, pour servir de suite à l’Essai sur le même sujet disposable water bottles, publié dans le Journal de Physique, juillet 1811 („Note on the Relative Masses of Elementary Molecules, or Suggested Densities of Their Gases, and on the Constituents of Some of Their Compounds, As a Follow-up to the Essay on the Same Subject, Published in the Journal of Physics, July 1811“) (), about gas densities.

In 1821 he published another paper, Nouvelles considérations sur la théorie des proportions déterminées dans les combinaisons, et sur la détermination des masses des molécules des corps (New Considerations on the Theory of Proportions Determined in Combinations, and on Determination of the Masses of Atoms) and shortly afterwards, Mémoire sur la manière de ramener les composès organiques aux lois ordinaires des proportions déterminées (Note on the Manner of Finding the Organic Composition by the Ordinary Laws of Determined Proportions).

In 1841, he published his work in Fisica dei corpi ponderabili, ossia Trattato della costituzione materiale de‘ corpi, 4 volumes.

The scientific community did not give great attention to his theory, so Avogadro’s hypothesis was not immediately accepted. André-Marie Ampère achieved the same results three years later by another method (in his Sur la détermination des proportions dans lesquelles les corps se combinent d’après le nombre et la disposition respective des molécules dont leurs particules intégrantes sont composéesOn the Determination of Proportions in which Bodies Combine According to the Number and the Respective Disposition of the Molecules by Which Their Integral Particles Are Made), but the same indifference was shown to his theory as well.

Only through studies by Charles Frédéric Gerhardt and Auguste Laurent on organic chemistry was it possible to demonstrate that Avogadro’s law explained why the same quantities of molecules in a gas have the same volume.

Unfortunately, related experiments with some inorganic substances showed seeming exceptions to the law. This was finally resolved by Stanislao Cannizzaro, as announced at Karlsruhe Congress in 1860, four years after Avogadro’s death. He explained that these exceptions were due to molecular dissociations at certain temperatures, and that Avogadro’s law determined not only molecular masses, but atomic masses as well.

In 1911, a meeting in Turin commemorated the hundredth anniversary of the publication of Avogadro’s classic 1811 paper. King Victor Emmanuel III attended. Thus, Avogadro’s great contribution to chemistry was recognized.

Rudolf Clausius, with his kinetic theory on gases, gave another confirmation of Avogadro’s Law. Jacobus Henricus van ‚t Hoff showed that Avogadro’s theory also held in dilute solutions.

Avogadro is hailed as a founder of the atomic-molecular theory.

Rule of three (economics)

The rule of three in Business and Economics is a rule of thumb suggesting that there are always three major competitors in any free market within any one industry. This was put forward by Bruce Henderson of the Boston Consulting Group in 1976, and has been tested by Jagdish Sheth and Rajendra Sisodia in 2002, analyzing performance data and comparing it to market share. This is an attempt to explain how, in mature markets, there are usually three ‚major players‘ in a competitive market.

The rule of three as put forward by Sheth and Sisodia in 2002 states that in a mature market, there will normally be three major competitors and several others, who only succeed if they are able to operate in a niche market. They based their studies on a review of a number of markets in North America. They compared market share to financial performance, and found that small, niche-market specialists and large, full-line generalists were those who performed best when holding a large market share. They also noticed a section in between the two in which companies performed poorly, which they referred to as “the ditch” (see reference); this is based on the form of the graph of market share versus financial performance as the graph slopes downwards for niche players (1% – 5% market share) and upwards for full-line generalists (over 10% market share). Sheth and Sisodia use the analogy of a shopping mall, in which they propose that there will be three major full-line generalist stores, along with various smaller, product and market specialist shops.

Sheth and Sisodia also make a number of observations with regard to how companies behave in such cases. For instance, the first-ranked player will often be the least innovative in spite of spending the most on R&D. However, the first-ranked player may ’steal‘ ideas from the third-ranked player.

It may be the case that, if a price war emerges between the first-ranked and second-ranked players, the third-ranked player may end up in “the ditch”, although a new third-rank player would be expected to emerge in due course.

Using a diverse sample of more than 160 US industries, two base-time periods, and numerous performance measures, Uslay, Altintig, and Winsor (2010) empirically tested the rule of three and reported that industries with exactly three generalists outperformed every other industry structure. They also found that micro-specialists, generalists with excessive market share Cocktail dresses, and firms „in the ditch“ without clear strategic strengths tended to underperform others. Their findings provided empirical support for the “Rule of Three”.

Pareto principle

Uslay, Can, Z Glass Water Bottle 12 oz. Ayca Altintig, and Robert D. Winsor (2010), “An Empirical Examination of the “Rule of Three”: Strategy Implications for Top Management, Marketers, and Investors,” Journal of Marketing, 74 (March), 20-39 football tshirts.


Endometriose er en sykdom som kan oppstå hos kvinner i fruktbar alder.Endometriose er en tilstand der vev som tilsvarer den blodrike slimhinnen i livmoren, endometrium best sweater shaver for cashmere, finnes andre steder i kroppen. Vevet påvirkes av hormonforandringene under menstruasjonssyklus. Endometriosen kan være på en overflate som vil blø under menstruasjonen på samme måte som fra livmoren. Vevet kan også være inne i fast vev, og vil da fungere som en cyste som blir mer blodfylt og større under menstruasjonen. Endometriose er vanlig på organer i bukhulen. Den vanligste forklaringen på endometriose i bukhulen er at noe av menstruasjonsblodet med celler fra endometriet føres gjennom egglederen ut i bukhulen og fester seg på bukhinnen, eggstokker, tarmen og urinveier. Det skapes lesjoner, blodfylte cyster og sammenvoksninger, som resulterer i betennelser, smerter, barnløshet og mulige andre medisinske problemer. Det kan forekomme endometriose i neseslimhinnen best toddler water bottle.[trenger referanse] Kvinnen vil da blø neseblod under menstruasjonen. Endometriose kan oppstå i gamle arr på huden eller indre arr etter operasjoner.[trenger referanse]

Symptomene: Smerter ved menstruasjon, eggløsning, samleie, tarmbevegelse/avføring og vannlating. Tretthet. Oppblåsthet, kvalme, sterke menstruasjonsblødninger. Problemer med å bli gravid.

Aktuell behandling er smertestillende, p-piller, hormonbehandling (varierte grader) og kirurgisk fjerning (kikkehullsoperasjon) / hysterektomi (kirurgisk fjerning av livmoren).

Man vet ikke hvordan sykdommen oppstår og det finnes heller ingen definitiv kur.

Du bør aldri bruke informasjon fra Internett, inkludert Wikipedia, som eneste kilde til avgjørelser eller tiltak i helsemessige spørsmål. Ved legemiddelspørsmål bør du rådspørre apotek eller lege, ved helsespørsmål relevant autorisert helsepersonell the lemon press, og ved dyresykdom bør du rådspørre veterinær. Bruk aldri reseptbelagte legemidler uten råd fra lege. Søk råd på apoteket ved bruk av reseptfrie legemidler og naturmidler, spesielt om du også bruker reseptbelagte midler. Bruk av flere legemidler samtidig kan ha utilsiktet effekt.



Großanhausen ist ein Ortsteil mit 129 Einwohnern (Stand 2015) der Stadt Burgau im schwäbischen Landkreis Günzburg (Bayern). Infolge der bayerischen Gebietsreform wurde zum 1. Mai 1978 die zuvor selbstständige Gemeinde Unterknöringen mit Großanhausen (bis 1865 Groß- und Kleinanhausen classic replica football shirts, am 1. Juli 1970 nach Unterknöringen eingemeindet) zu Burgau eingemeindet.

Das Dorf, vier Kilometer westlich von Burgau, ist über die Bundesstraße 10 zu erreichen brazil t shirt soccer.

Römische Funde auf dem Gebiet von Großanhausen zeugen von einer frühen Besiedlung des Kammeltals.

Im Jahr 1207 schenkte Rudolf de Ahusen unter Mitwirkung seines Bruders Bruno von Burgau einen Mansus in Anhausen dem Kloster Wettenhausen where can i buy a lint shaver. 1438 kam der Ort mit Kirche und Kirchensatz an das Kloster Wettenhausen, wo er bis zur Säkularisation verblieb reading football shirt.

Siehe auch: Liste der Baudenkmäler in Burgau#Großanhausen

Großanhausen | Kleinanhausen | Limbach | Nußlacher Hof | Oberknöringen | Unterknöringen


Lycée de la plaine de l’Ain

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Le lycée de la plaine de l’Ain ou lycée solaire est un lycée général et technologique situé dans la ville d’Ambérieu-en-Bugey, dans l’Ain. Sous la tutelle du ministère de l’éducation nationale, cet établissement public dépend de l’académie de Lyon. Son nom fait directement référence à la région de la Plaine de l’Ain.

Ce lycée construit en 1983 se distingue par son chauffage solaire installé dès l’origine ; cela en fait un précurseur dans ce domaine. Cela vaut au lycée le surnom de «  Lycée solaire ». Il est caractérisé par la présence de panneaux solaires, qui couvrent l’ensemble des toits du bâtiment. Les planchers reposent sur des cuves en béton stockant l’eau chaude. De nombreuses serres de verre à structure bois sont disposées à l’intérieur des bâtiments, laissant entrer la lumière solaire et assurant un supplément de chauffage. Ces particularités architecturales font de cet établissement un pionnier en matière de construction écologique qui lui a valu d’être inscrit au patrimoine de la région Rhône-Alpes.

En 2015, le lycée se classe 13e sur 16 au niveau départemental en termes de qualité d’enseignement, et 1315e au niveau national. Le classement s’établit sur trois critères : le taux de réussite au bac fabric shaver uk, la proportion d’élèves de première qui obtient le baccalauréat en ayant fait les deux dernières années de leur scolarité dans l’établissement, et la valeur ajoutée (calculée à partir de l’origine sociale des élèves, de leur âge et de leurs résultats au diplôme national du brevet).

Outre les filières secondes, premières et terminales générales (ES, S, L) et premières et terminales technologiques (STI2D, STL, STMG), il est possible de choisir une option italien, espagnol, anglais européen, allemand européen, grec, latin, ou encore musique ou cinéma audio-visuel, qui consiste en quelques heures supplémentaires, et une épreuve supplémentaire au baccalauréat. Le lycée participe également au projet Comenius.

Le lycée compte également des formations post-bac, en particulier des BTS (bioanalyses et contrôles, mécanique et automatismes industriels, technico-commercial, etc.).

Cole Turner

Cole Turner is a fictional character on the WB television series Charmed, portrayed by series regular Julian McMahon between seasons three and five. McMahon returned for a guest appearance in the show’s seventh season, for its 150th episode. Charmed is a series which focuses on three good witches, the prophesied „Charmed Ones“, sisters who battle the forces of evil. Cole is an adversary-turned-ally of the sisters introduced in the third season and a love interest of main character Phoebe Halliwell, portrayed by Alyssa Milano. Like the show’s main characters, Cole also possessed a number of magical abilities; the most commonly used were the power to teleport and the power to throw projective energy balls which could stun or kill.

Within the series‘ narrative, Cole is half-human and half-demon by blood, and better known to the demonic world for over a hundred years as the legendary demonic assassin Belthazor. Cole is dispatched by the Source of all Evil himself to kill the Charmed Ones only to fall in love with then-youngest sister Phoebe, renounce evil and become a close ally of the Charmed Ones. Though Cole eventually completely rids himself of his demonic nature, and marries Phoebe in the fourth season, he never gains the trust of new youngest sister Paige (Rose McGowan).

As part of his storyline, the character later returns to evil after unwillingly becoming the new Source. As the Source, Cole is eventually vanquished by the Charmed Ones, only to come back from death itself in his attempts to win Phoebe back. By this point he is one of the most powerful beings to ever exist. Driven insane, Cole is, through his own doing, once again killed by the sisters in the fifth season. When the character returns for a guest appearance in the seventh season, it is unclear what kind of being he is, but he states that he is caught somewhere between life and death, atoning for his sins.

Cole Turner makes his first appearance in the third-season (2000–01) premiere episode, „The Honeymoon’s Over“. Charmed Ones Phoebe (Alyssa Milano) and Prue (Shannen Doherty) run into Assistant District Attorney Cole Turner at the site where they killed a demon, and cover their tracks. Over the course of the episode, it becomes apparent to the audience that Cole is himself a very powerful demon, pursuing Phoebe romantically and deceiving the sisters as to his true nature in order to finally kill them.

In „Power Outage“, Cole’s superiors, the demonic Triad, learn that he may have developed genuine romantic feelings for Phoebe; Cole responds by killing them, forcing him into hiding. Meanwhile, the sisters acquire a target in the red-and-black-skinned demon Belthazor (Michael Bailey Smith). In „Sleuthing with the Enemy“, the Charmed Ones discovers Cole and Belthazor are one and the same, but when Cole convinces Phoebe that he, being half human, truly loves her, she fakes his death so that her sisters Piper (Holly Marie Combs) and Prue will not hunt for him.

When Cole re-emerges, causing a rift between Phoebe and her sisters, he attempts to re-ingratiate himself with his demonic peers, the Brotherhood of the Thorn, as the sisters‘ double agent. When Prue and Piper are both killed following a successful mission by the Source’s assassin Shax (Michael Bailey Smith) in the season finale „All Hell Breaks Loose“, Cole begs the Source (again, Michael Bailey Smith) to turn back time and prevent the exposure of magic. The Source agrees on the condition that Phoebe remain in the Underworld under his command, though he secretly orders her to be killed. Shax attacks the Halliwell Manor once more after time is reversed, but this time Leo (Brian Krause), Piper’s husband who is also the sisters‘ guardian angel (whitelighter) is not available to heal either Piper or Prue, who lie gravely wounded.

The season four premiere „Charmed Again“ reveals Leo arrived in time to heal Piper, but Prue died of her injuries, reflecting Doherty’s departure from the series. Leo assisted Phoebe to escape the Underworld, absconding on the Source’s deal. With Prue dead, the sisters are no longer the Charmed Ones, and Cole does what he can to assist Phoebe and Piper from Shax’s continued attacks. Piper and Phoebe regain their full abilities—becoming Charmed Ones once again—when they discover their younger half-sister, Paige Matthews (Rose McGowan), alongside whom they finally destroy Shax.

In „Black as Cole“, Cole proposes to Phoebe whilst they vanquish a low level demon. Later they find that Sykes has been mimicking Belthazor and in a bid to vanquish him Cole takes on his demonic form but has Phoebe create a potion to kill his demonic half if he can not change back. Before he can change back, a woman looking to revenge his killing of her love picks up the potion and throws it at him, causing Belthazor to die. In „Lost and Bound“, Paige gets Cole a job as a legal aid lawyer. However he can’t control his emotions and soon quits but not before the landlord who he was arguing with agrees to put the heating back on.

In „Charmed and Dangerous“, the Source (Peter Woodward) breaks an aged old agreement and consumes the hollow. The Seer (Debbi Morgan) tricks Cole into consuming the hollow which allows him to assist the Charmed Ones in vanquishing the physical version of the Source. It is revealed that the Seer tricked Cole into becoming the new Source of Evil in „The Three Faces of Phoebe“. An older version of Phoebe has turned bitter because of what he has done and warns her to save herself and states that they never got married but she can’t help but think what might have been. Present-day Phoebe asks him if he is hiding anything; he says he is not.

The Source takes over Cole completely in „Marry-Go-Round“. The Seer warns him that marrying Phoebe would be the worst thing possible as they would have a son, the most powerful magical creature ever, who would be on the side of good, following the Charmed Ones‘ destiny. She tells him the only way the child will grow up evil is if Cole marries Phoebe in a dark ceremony. As the Source, he puts a spell on the Charmed Ones which makes Phoebe spotty and Piper and Paige over sleep. Paige and Phoebe argue as the latter suspects the former of trying to disrupt the wedding, having already made a mistake with the dress. When Paige tries to make an amends with Phoebe’s spots it causes her to become invisible.

Suspecting evil magic to be involved, the sisters try and reverse it without success but pass the invisibility on to Paige. Cole asks the Seer to send a Lazarus demon (who she summoned to lure Phoebe to a cemetery for the purposes of a dark ceremony) to attack at the wedding which causes Phoebe to call it off, thus reversing the magic on her, which had been switched to Paige. When the Charmed Ones question the demon, he accuses Cole of betraying him and tells them that he sent him to attack them. But before he can out Cole as the Source, Cole vanquishes him and pretends to be the Seer before teleporting and pretending to be unconscious after she attacked him. Cole marries Phoebe in a dark wedding at the end of the episode, without her suspecting drinking her blood when a throne pricks her with the ceremony held at night with a dark priest.

Cole pretends to be the perfect husband by sending Leo and Piper on honeymoon to Hawaii and buying expensive gifts such as a new car in „The Fifth Halliwheel“. Paige begins to suspect that Cole is a demon again especially when she catches Cole using powers on an innocent but is not sure of what she has seen. Cole as Leo calms Paige’s fears before sending the power broker demon who had already gone after the innocent after her. The Seer also puts in a plan to make Phoebe pregnant using the full moon and a tonic. The Seer and Cole create a tonic which will ensure that the child is evil. From taking the tonic, the child will take over Phoebe’s body and ensure that she remains by his side when she finds out that he is the Source. Phoebe eventually takes the tonic laced with chocolate to make the plan work.

In „Bite Me“ different factions have tried to become ruler of the Underworld so Cole tries to make them all work together to beat good. However one of the leaders encourages a group of vampires to rise up and rebel, which they do so after Cole refuses to listen to them. He almost gets exposed by Paige when she orbs in his home but he quickly covers this up by saying he has a migraine, hence why the blinds were down. The vampires try to turn Paige into one to get the other sisters and then over throw the Source and become the new leaders. To keep himself on top, Cole kills the Queen after Phoebe and Piper inadvertently tell him what to do. Phoebe later discovers that she is pregnant before informing him in „We’re Off to See the Wizard.“

Cole tries to give up the Source to the Wizard after his human side becomes strong and Phoebe learns through a premonition that he is a demon again. But before the ritual is complete, the Seer, who has manipulated Phoebe, interrupts and vanquishes the Wizard. Cole is crowned the new Source with Phoebe as his Queen. Cole faces a coup in „Long Live the Queen“ when Phoebe stops the killing of an innocent. Cole demands she make a choice. Phoebe later learns from the Seer and Cole that the tonic they were giving her was turning her evil. Phoebe eventually sides with her sisters and before Cole can destroy them she traps him in a crystal cage which allows the Charmed Ones to vanquish him.

In the season finale „Witch Way Now?“, Phoebe discovers Cole is able to linger in the Demonic Wasteland, where vanquished demons go, because of his human soul. Phoebe visits him there, insisting to him that he move on to his afterlife. After she leaves, he accidentally discovers he can acquire the powers of other demons vanquished there. He becomes powerful enough to kill the beast that consumes the essence of those vanquished there and, finally, to escape. Once back in the real world, he saves the sisters‘ lives from a witch hunter.

In the season-five premiere „A Witch’s Tail“, Cole returns with numerous new abilities, making him more powerful than ever. Though he still loves Phoebe, she wants to move on from him and is frustrated by his attempts to win her back. In „Siren Song,“ he saves the life of a young future whitelighter named Melissa in a failed attempt to impress Phoebe. When he tries to confront the demonic Siren the sisters are pursuing, the Siren puts him under her control. Under this influence, he tries to strangle Phoebe to death before the Siren is ultimately vanquished, and Phoebe nearly dies. As a result, Cole finally understands the threat he poses to Phoebe and promises to stop using his powers

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, but succumbs to temptation and kills again when confronted by a sleazy landlord.

In „Sympathy for the Demon“, Cole is taunted by the spirit of the demon Barbas (Billy Drago), who convinces him to use a power-stripping potion, inadvertently granting Barbas his powers and a corporeal form. To stop the threat of Barbas or anyone else possessing Cole’s powers, Paige strips Barbas of Cole’s powers and Cole takes them back. The sisters, however, fear that these abilities will make him evil again. In „Sam, I Am“, Cole misuses his abilities and incinerates two robbers/murderers, and is later visited by two mysterious beings who identify themselves as Avatars. Neither good or evil, the Avatars offer Cole the opportunity to join their ranks and enjoy their powers; he refuses.

Instead, Cole tries to provoke the sisters to kill him by sending an assassin after them, knowing that they will be able to recover thanks to their recent contact with Paige’s father, whitelighter Sam Wilder (Scott Jaeck). He is distraught to learn he cannot be killed, and is pushed over the edge into insanity. Cole reverts to malevolent means of winning Phoebe back, striking at the Charmed Ones in various underhand ways over several episodes. In Charmed

Noble House

Noble House is a novel by James Clavell, published in 1981 and set in Hong Kong in 1963.

It is a massive book, well over 1000 pages, with dozens of characters and numerous intermingling plot lines. In 1988, it was adapted as a television miniseries for NBC, starring Pierce Brosnan. The miniseries updates the storyline of the novel to the 1980s.

The Noble House also is a nickname of Struan’s, the trading company featured prominently in most of Clavell’s novels how do you tenderize beef.

Noble House is set in 1963. The tai-pan, Ian Dunross, struggles to rescue Struan’s from the precarious financial position left by his predecessor. To do this, he seeks partnership with an American millionaire, while trying to ward off his arch-rival Quillan Gornt, who seeks to destroy Struan’s once and for all. Meanwhile, Chinese communists, Taiwanese nationalists, and Soviet spies illegally vie for influence in Hong Kong while the British government seeks to prevent this. And nobody, it seems, can get anything done without enlisting the aid of Hong Kong’s criminal underworld. Other obstacles include water shortages, landslides, bank runs and stock market crashes.

In Noble House, Dunross finds his company the target of a hostile takeover at a time when Struan’s is desperately overextended. He is also embroiled in international espionage when he finds himself in possession of secret documents desperately desired by both the KGB and MI6. The novel follows Dunross‘ attempts to extricate himself from all this and to save Struan’s, the Noble House.

Struan and Company is based on Jardine Matheson Holdings, which continues to exist as an Asian trading company. The chief character, Ian Dunross, is believed to be[weasel words] a composite character of two real life Jardine Matheson tai-pans, Sir Hugh Barton and Sir Michael Herries.

Rothwell-Gornt is based on Butterfield and Swire, now known as Swire Pacific. Quillan Gornt is based on two Swire tai-pans, John Kidston „Jock“ Swire and William Charles Goddard Knowles buy baseball jerseys.

Unlike the other Asian Saga novels, Noble House is not closely based on a specific series of events, but is more a snapshot of the 1960s in Hong Kong, and serves as a capsule history of Jardines in the 1960s, against the backdrop of the impending Vietnam War and the recent Kim Philby defection. The story opens on Sunday, August 18, 1963, and runs through the days immediately preceding the assassination of John F. Kennedy. In 1961 Jardine Matheson became a public company, with the initial offer oversubscribed over 56 times, which is attributed in the novel to tai-pan Ian Dunross. In 1963 the Hongkong Land subsidiary of Jardine (fictionalized as „Asian Properties“) opened what was then the Mandarin Oriental Hotel, which has today become one of the world’s leading hotels. The Dairy Farm subsidiary of Jardine moved into the supermarket sector in 1964 with the acquisition of Wellcome (fictionalized as „H.K. General Stores“). A Jardine representative office was established in Australia in 1963 (fictionalized as the next assignment of Linbar Struan). The big set-pieces — the fire on the boat and the landslide — are also closely modeled on real events (the Jumbo Floating Restaurant fire in 1971 and the Kotewall Road disaster in 1972). The American-Chinese scientist who defected to China and helped develop the first atom bomb for China, Dr. Joseph Yu, is a fictionalized version of renowned Caltech scientist Dr. Qian Xuesen.

A major difference between the original novel and the later miniseries adaptation is that the television version changes the setting from 1963 to the late 1980s, and updates visible technology and the general atmosphere accordingly. The looming return of Hong Kong to China in 1997 is frequently mentioned, which was not a major concern in the 1960s.

Clavell says the novel took him three years to research and write.

TSS (operating system)

The IBM Time Sharing System TSS/360 is a discontinued early time-sharing operating system designed exclusively for a special model of the System/360 line of mainframes, the Model 67. Made available on a trial basis to a limited set of customers in 1967, it was never officially released as a supported product by IBM. TSS pioneered a number of novel features, some of which later appeared in more popular systems such as Multics and VM/CMS. TSS was migrated to System/370 and 303x systems, but despite its many advances and novel capabilities, TSS failed to meet expectations and was eventually canceled.

TSS/360 was one of the first implementations of tightly-coupled symmetric multiprocessing. A pair of Model 67 mainframes shared a common physical memory space, and ran a single copy of the kernel (and application) code. An I/O operation launched by one processor could end and cause an interrupt in the other. The Model 67 used a standard 360 instruction called Test and Set to implement locks on code critical sections.

It also implemented Virtual Memory and Virtual Machines using position-independent code.

TSS/360 included an early implementation of a „Table Driven Scheduler“ – a user-configured table whose columns were parameters such as current priority

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, working set size, and number of timeslices used to date. The kernel would refer to this table when calculating the new priority of a thread. This later appeared in systems as diverse as Honeywell CP-V and IBM z/OS.

As was standard with operating system software at the time, TSS/360 customers (such as General Motors Research Laboratories) were given full access to the entire source of the operating system code and development tools. User-developed improvements and patches were frequently incorporated into the official source code cool stainless steel water bottle.

TSS/360 suffered from performance and reliability problems and lack of compatibility with OS/360, although those issues were eventually addressed. IBM attempted to develop TSS on a very aggressive schedule with a large staff of programmers to compete with Multics. By 1967, it had become evident that TSS/360 was suffering from the same kinds of delays as OS/360. In February 1968, at the time of SHARE 30, there were eighteen S/360-67 sites attempting to run TSS. During the conference, IBM announced via „blue letter“ that TSS/360 was being decommitted&nbsp

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;– a great blow to the time-sharing community. This decision was temporarily reversed, and TSS/360 was not officially canceled until 1971. However, TSS/360 continued to be quietly available for a time to existing TSS/360 customers, as an interim measure.

After TSS/360 was canceled, IBM put its primary efforts into the Time Sharing Option (TSO), a time-sharing monitor for OS/360. Several other groups developed less ambitious, more successful time sharing systems for the S/360-67, notably CP-67 at IBM’s Cambridge Scientific Center, an early virtual machine monitor which evolved into VM/370, MTS at the University of Michigan, and ORVYL at Stanford University. IBM also provided the TSS/370 PRPQ as a migration path for existing TSS/360 customers, which went through multiple releases.

TSS provides users a command-line interface. Users interact with the command system. The command format consists of Command_Name[ operands] how long to tenderize meat. The command name is one to eight characters without imbedded blanks. The operands are optional depending on the command, and must be separated from the command name by at least one blank. Multiple operands should be separated by TAB characters or commas. Command lines can be continued by typing a hyphen („-„) at the end of the line to be continued and typing the continuation at the beginning of the next line. Multiple commands can be written on a line by separating them with semicolons („;“). Comments are allowed in command lines, separated from the command with a semicolon and included in single quotes („‚“). Operands can be either positional or keyword, with the format „keyword=value“.

System commands are divided into seven categories:

TSS provided an early implementation of „position-independent code“, the ability to have different processes run a single copy of an executable possibly mapped to a different virtual addresses in each process.

System/360 programs typically contain modifiable data (working storage) and „address constants“ or „adcons“ (fields containing the addresses of code or data). In TSS virtual addresses differ for each process running that program. TSS language processors place all adcons and working storage into a separate section of code called a Prototype Control Section, or „PSECT“. When the program is loaded the dynamic loader makes a copy of the PSECT and relocates the adcons to reflect the virtual addresses assigned within the current process, therefore each user of the program has a unique copy of the PSECT. When a called program is executed general register 13 contains the address of the PSECT for the current process; this address is used for all references to variable data or addresses.

Dobroniega of Poland

Dobroniega of Poland (Polish: Dobroniega Ludgarda battery operated toothpaste dispenser, German: Dobroniega (Luitgard) von Polen; b where to buy a water bottle. c. 1129 – d. by 1160), was a Polish princess, a member of the House of Piast and by marriage the Margravine of Lusatia.

She was the daughter of Bolesław III Wrymouth, Duke of Poland, by his second wife Salomea, daughter of Henry, Count of Berg. She was probably named after her paternal great-grandmother, Maria Dobroniega of Kiev.

Around 1142, Dobroniega married Theodoric, second surviving son of Conrad, Margrave of Meissen and Lusatia pilling razor. After her wedding, she changed her name to Ludgarda.

During her marriage she bore her husband two children: a son, Conrad glass drinking water bottles, and a daughter, Gertruda. When Margrave Conrad died in 1157, he divided his domains between his sons; Dietrich became the Margrave of Lusatia (Orientalis marchio), and Dobroniega the Margravine consort. However, later Theodoric entered in a relationship with Cunigunde, the widowed Countess of Plötzkau, and abandoned Dobroniega, but apparently without divorcing her.

Dobroniega’s date of death remains unknown. Her last mention as a living person was on 26 October 1147, but certainly she was alive by 1157 when her husband succeeded in Lusatia; some sources have her dead by 1160. Her son Conrad was killed in a tournament on 17 February 1175 and her daughter Gertruda became a nun in Gerbstedt.

Without surviving legitimate male issue, Margrave Theodoric I was succeeded upon his death in 1185 by his younger brother Dedi III.

Port de Limay

Le port de Limay-Porcheville est un port fluvio-maritime, le premier d’Île-de-France, dépendant du Port autonome de Paris.

Il est implanté sur la rive droite de la Seine, un peu en amont de Mantes-la-Jolie dans l’ouest de l’Île-de-France, dans le département des Yvelines. Ses installations s’étendent sur les deux communes de Limay et Porcheville et jouxtent d’une part l’importante zone industrielle de Limay-Porcheville et d’autre part la centrale thermique de Porcheville.

Le port de Limay dispose d’une desserte multimodale.

Par voie fluviale, le port de Limay a accès au bassin navigable de la Seine et de ses affluents (Marne, Oise), aménagé à grand gabarit, qui dessert principalement l’Île-de-France et Paris. Sur le plan maritime, le port est accessible au caboteurs fluvio-maritimes de 2 500 tonnes de port en lourd stainless steel insulated bottle.

Par route, il est relié à l’autoroute A13 par l’intermédiaire de la rocade est de Mantes-la Jolie qui franchit la Seine par un viaduc s’appuyant sur l’île de Limay.

Par voie ferrée, il dispose d’un embranchement particulier raccordé à la ligne électrifiée Paris – Mantes par Conflans 1l stainless steel water bottle. Ces installations, munies d’un faisceau d’échange permettant la réception et l’expédition de trains entiers, sont desservies par la gare de Mantes-la-Jolie.

Un accès aérien est également possible pour les passagers grâce à une hélisurface.

Le port est constitué d’une darse unique de huit hectares creusée perpendiculairement au fleuve dans d’anciennes gravières.

La plateforme multimodale s’étend sur 125 hectares et offre 35 000 m2 de surfaces d’activités. Pour favoriser l’implantation des entreprises (quinze sociétés en 2008), le port a mis en place huit kilomètres de voirie interne, 1 700 m de quais, treize entrepôts (soit 35 000 m2 de surface couverte), 1 600 m2 de bureaux, un centre de vie (qui regroupe les services du bureau du port) et un terre-plein aménagé de 16 ha pour le stockage de 7 500 véhicules.

Ce port a été mis en service en 1970.

En 2003, inauguration du terminal céréalier de l’Union des coopératives agricoles Yvelines Céréales (UCAYC).

Le a eu lieu l’inauguration du terminal à conteneurs de ce port.

Le port offre de nombreuses activités : importation, stockage et distribution de produits sidérurgiques, de ferrailles, de pâte à papier et d’engrais ; stockage et l’exportation de ronds à béton, de grumes et de céréales ; stockage en transit d’éléments de produits industriels divers ; préparation et stockages de véhicules ; stockage et distribution des pièces détachées ; ainsi que des prestations de service : telles que la consignation, le transit, la manutention, le transport.

Le trafic annuel s’est élevé à 281 783 tonnes pour l’exercice 2005, dont 127 663 pour le trafic fluvial et 154 120 pour le trafic maritime.

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