Caroline Amalie

Caroline Amalie (28. juni 1796 i København – 9. marts 1881) var hertugdatter og dronning af Danmark. I 1815 ægtede hun arvingen til den danske trone prins Christian Frederik, den senere Christian VIII, og var dronning 1839–1848. Hun engagerede sig i filantropisk virksomhed, asyler, skoler og plejeforeninger. Hun knyttede sig nært til Vartov-præsten N.F.S. Grundtvigs forkyndelse og var ham og den grundtvigske bevægelse til uvurderlig støtte. Som medlem af den augustenborgske hertugfamilie blev hun i tiden som dronning i større kredse tillagt manglende nationale sympatier, men hun blev som enkedronning højt respekteret og værdsat af det danske folk.

Prinsesse Caroline Amalie blev født den 28. juni 1796 i familiepalæet i København som datter af Frederik Christian 2., hertug af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (1765-1814) og hustru prinsesse Louise Augusta af Danmark (1771-1843), der var halvsøster til kong Frederik VI. Prinsesse Louise Augusta var frugt af forholdet mellem kong Christian VII´s dronning Caroline Mathilde og kongens livlæge Johann Friedrich Struensee.

Prinsesse Caroline Amalie voksede op i palæet, Dehns Palæ, i Bredgade i København, hvor hun blev nært knyttet til kronprinsparret (kong Frederik VI og dronning Marie Sophie Frederikke). En dybtgående familiestrid førte imidlertid i 1810 til et åbent brud mellem hendes far og kong Frederik VI, og familien boede derefter på Augustenborg Slot, hvor faderen, bitter og nedbrudt, blev omsorgsfuldt plejet af sin datter. Han døde den 14. juli 1814. Forholdet mellem forældrene var stærkt påvirket af familiestriden, idet moderen forblev meget loyal over for sin bror kong Frederik VI.

Caroline Amalies to brødre Christian August, (1798-1869) og Frederik Emil August (1800-1865), kaldet ”Prinsen af Nøhr”, var begge hertuger af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg. De stillede sig i marts 1848 i spidsen for oprøret i hertugdømmerne, der blev optakten til Den første slesvigske Krig, og de blev efter krigen landsforvist og døde i udlandet.

I december 1814 blev Caroline Amalie forlovet med den danske prins Christian Frederik, den senere kong Christian den VIII (1786-1848), som var arving til den danske trone, idet hans fætter kong Frederik VI ikke havde sønner, der kunne efterfølge ham. Prins Christian Frederik havde været gift i årene 1806-1810, fra dette ægteskab havde han sønnen Frederik, den senere kong Frederik VII.

Efter brylluppet på Augustenborg Slot den 22. maj 1815 tog de nygifte ophold i sommerresidensen på Sorgenfri Slot, der skulle komme til at spille en stor rolle i Caroline Amalies tilværelse. Christian Frederik havde i 1805 efter sin far arvet det Levetzauske Palæ på Amalienborg, nu Christians VIII´s Palæ.

Efter tiden som statholder i Norge og den korte periode fra maj til oktober 1814, hvor han var valgt som Norges konstitutionelle konge, nød Christian Frederik ikke sin fætter kong Frederik VI´s tillid. Han blev derfor udnævnt til guvernør over Fyn med domicil på Odense Slot, svarende til intern forvisning fra hoffet i København.

Kronprinsparret foretog i det følgende år flere udlandsrejser, hvoraf den mest omfattende i 1818-1822 gik til Tyskland, Italien, Schweiz, Frankrig og England. På rejserne fik parret lejlighed til gennem samtaler med fyrster, ledende statsmænd og kunstnere at danne sig et indtryk af den rige kulturelle udvikling, der i disse år satte sit præg på Europa samt til at skabe sig et værdifuldt netværk af personlige kontakter inden for politik, kunst og videnskab.

Ægteskabet var til deres store sorg barnløst. Skønt arving til tronen var prins Christian Frederik i mange år uden indflydelse på statens førelse og først i 1831 fik han sæde i statsrådet.

Ved kong Frederik den VI´s død den 3. december 1839 arvede Christian Frederik tronen som kong Christian VIII. Som den sidste enevældige konge blev han kronet i Frederiksborg Slotskirke den 28. juni 1840.

I de national-liberale kredse forventede man, at han ville give landet en fri forfatning i lighed med hans indsats som statholder i Norge, hvor han gav landet en grundlov Eidsvoll-forfatningen den 17. maj 1814, men nu som konge i Danmark tøvede han. Som hertug over Slesvig, Holsten og Lauenborg så han modsætningerne mellem dansk og tysk vokse i omfang, og han ønskede at kunne dele sol og vind lige. I hans tid som konge øgedes oppositionens modstand mod ham. Han forberedte en afløsning af Enevælden som styreform til ikrafttræden september 1848, men akut sygdom i januar 1848 tvang ham til sengs. Han nåede dog at instruere sin søn kronprins Frederik om sine planer, inden han døde den 20. januar 1848. Han blev gravsat den 26. februar.

Caroline Amalie viste allerede som kronprinsesse stor interesse for og medleven i socialt arbejde. Hun deltog i oprettelsen af Det kvindelige Velgørende Selskab i 1815 under dronning Maries ledelse. Selskabet åbnede i 1828 et asyl for små børn, det første af sin art herhjemme.

I maj 1829 grundlagde Caroline Amalie sit eget børneasyl i Gothersgade for børn indtil syv år, hermed havde børneasyltanken for alvor slået rod i Danmark. Dronning Maries asyl og kronprinsesse Caroline Amalies asyl dannede forbilleder for oprettelse af adskillige asyler i København og i Provinsen.

I 1835 knyttede Caroline Amalie den unge teolog Peter Rørdam til sit asyl som lærer, senere som dets bestyrer. Han var en tro discipel af Grundtvig og fandt gennem dennes tanker om den frie skole mulighed for at udfolde denne idé i praksis.

Den 19. september 1841 åbnedes Dronningens Asylskole i Nørregade som skole for børn over syv år. Hermed tog Dronningen igen et væsentligt skridt i udviklingen af arbejdet for dårligt stillede børn. Arbejdsområdet blev yderligere udvidet, da hun den 6. oktober 1843 medvirkede ved oprettelsen af Den Kvindelige Plejeforening (DKP), hvis formål var at støtte trængende barselskvinder under deres sygeleje. Dette virkefelt blev senere udvidet mod svagelige kvinder, især ved at give dem arbejde og fortjeneste i hjemmet. Til kredsen af dronningens nærmeste medarbejdere i det sociale arbejde hørte overhofmesterinde Ingeborg Christiane Rosenørn (1784-1859).

Dronningen hentede megen inspiration hos den tyske filantrop Amalie Sieveking (1794-1859), der betragtes som én af hovedkræfterne bag oprettelsen af den kvindelige diakoni.

Dronningen knyttede i sit asylarbejde nære relationer til præstesønnerne, Otto Harald Boisen (1817-1894) og Peter Outzen Boisen (1815-1862), sønner af biskop Peter Outzen Boisen (1762-1831) på Lolland.

I 1860 ansatte Dronningen fru Susette Augusta Mariboe (1815-1889) som forstanderinde for Asylskolen. Fra 1866 ledede hun tillige et nyoprettet pigehjem, der uddannede tjenestepiger. Hun nød dronningens fulde tillid og udelte sympati. Efter dronningens død deltog hun i arbejdet med at omdanne skolen til en selvejende institution i overensstemmelse med dronningens testamentariske bestemmelse.

Kort før jul 1837 blev den livsvarige censur, som Grundtvig i 1826 var blevet idømt, ophævet ved kongeligt dekret. Grundtvig var derfor den 16. januar 1838 i audiens hos kronprins Christian Frederik for at takke herfor. Forud for audiensen bad kronprinsessen sin mand om efterfølgende at få lejlighed til at møde Grundtvig. Det var første gang de to mødtes. Kort tid efter blev Grundtvig indbudt til at holde forelæsninger på slottet for kronprinsessen og en række af hendes veninder og hofdamer. Fundamentet for et livsvarigt venskab og et stærkt interessefællesskab mellem kronprinsessen og Grundtvig var dermed lagt.

Grundtvig blev i maj 1839 efter ansøgning udnævnt til præst i Vartov, og kronprinsessen havde herefter sin faste plads i den beskedne hospitalskirke.

Ved åbningen af Dronningens Asylskole i 1841 tilbød Grundtvig sig som direktør for skolen en stilling, han sideløbende varetog i en årrække phone case that can go underwater. I maj 1843 modtog han uventet et tilbud fra dronningen om en studierejse til England på tre måneder, hvorunder han var ledsaget af sønnen Svend Grundtvig. I den følgende vinter holdt Grundtvig sine senere så kendte Brage-snak foredrag, men blev efterfølgende ramt af en depression. Dronningen tilbød familien Grundtvig i sit og Kongens navn, at den i sommeren 1844 kunne tage ophold på Lille Tuborg.

Da Brage-foredragene blev udgivet i bogform blev værket dedikeret: „Til Danmarks Dronning, Dagmar den Anden, Caroline Amalie den Første, Dronning over Dane-Vælde“.

I januar 1848 blev kongen ramt af sygdom og døde den 20. januar. Medens den officielle bisættelse fandt sted i Roskilde Domkirke den 26. februar, afholdt Dronningen en mindehøjtidelighed i sit kabinet på Amalienborg, hvor Grundtvig talte. Samme dag afholdtes en mindehøjtidelighed i Vartov Kirke, hvor Grundtvig også talte. Ved begge højtideligheder blev der sunget to af ham til lejligheden forfattede sange.

Dronningens og Grundtvigs nære relationer kommer til udtryk, da Grundtvig i januar 1851 mistede sin hustru Elisabeth, kaldet Lise, og da han senere samme år ægtede fru Marie Toft, født Carlsen, samt da Grundtvig ved hustruens død i sommeren 1854 atter blev enkemand og stod tilbage med den kun tre måneder gamle søn Frederik Lange Grundtvig.

Ved Grundtvigs 50-års præstejubilæum den 29. maj 1861 modtog han som én af dagens første gaver et dannebrogsflag, der var syet af børnene på Dronningens Asylskole samt en flagstang, som drengene i Asylskolen havde udført. Senere på dagen overrakte Dronningen i spidsen for en kreds af kvinder, en syvarmet guldlysestage, til hvilken der var indsamlet bidrag fra hele Norden.

På 50-årsdagen for kronprinsparrets ankomst til København den 15. juli 1865 nedlagde Dronningen på en byggegrund på hjørnet af Rigensgade og Suensonsgade grundstenen til en ny Asylskole, hvor hendes to institutioner kunne samles. Midlerne hertil var tilvejebragt ved en indsamling. Fra Menigheden ved Vartov Kirke modtog hun en luksusudgave af Den Hellige Skrift med et forord af Grundtvig under overskriften: „Dronning best place to buy water bottles! Fra den Menighed i hvis Midte Du tog Sæde…“

På initiativ af rigsdagsmanden, gårdejer Jens Jørgensen i Åle og Asta Grundtvig blev der i sommeren 1863 indbudt til det første vennemøde til afholdelse i forbindelse med Grundtvigs 80 årsdag den 8. september. Vennemødet samlede 700 deltagere og strakte sig over to dage. Dronningen overværede alle møderne, der blev videreført med stigende deltagertal i 1865 og 1866, ligeledes med Dronningen som deltager. Hendes relationer til Grundtvig blev efter hoffets ønske reduceret efter det anfald af sindssyge mobile pouch for running, der kom til udbrud hos Grundtvig under gudstjenesten i Vartov Kirke Palmesøndag 1867.

For Dronningen var Grundtvig hendes læremester i de kirkelige spørgsmål, og han var hendes inspirator og vejleder i henseende til indhold og virke for hendes asylarbejde.

Efter kong Christian VIII ´s død havde Caroline Amalie fortsat sit vinterresidens i palæet på Amalienborg, medens somrene blev tilbragt på Sorgenfri Slot.

Om vinteren deltog hun i Vartovs gudstjenester, medens hun om sommeren søgte Lyngby Kirke. I 1856 fik hun udvirket, at Peter Rørdam i Mern blev kaldet som sognepræst ved Lyngby Kirke, hvorved det stærke venskabslige bånd dem imellem blev yderligere udbygget. Peter Rørdam løste i disse år mange opgaver for dronningen, og det var kun få dage, hvor han ikke under hendes sommerophold kiggede indenfor på Sorgenfri Slot.

Ved dronning Maries død i 1852 blev Caroline Amalie protektor for Det kvindelige velgørende Selskab. Hun tilskyndede til oprettelsen af Diakonissestiftelsen på Frederiksberg, som kronprinsesse Louise i maj 1863 nedlagde grundstenen til.

Som den sidste i den oldenborgerske kongerække modtog hun på 50-årsdagen for sin ankomst til København som kronprinsesse den 15. juli 1865 af kong Christian IX insignierne som Storkommandør af Dannebrogsordenen, der var den højeste orden, som kvinder på den tid kunne modtage.

Den kronologiske Samling på Rosenborg Slot modtog i 1879 hendes billede, som hun overrakte med ordene: „Jeg ville dog så gerne mindes af det danske folk, som jeg stedse med kærlighed har båret i mit hjerte“.

Dronningen døde på Amalienborg den 9. marts 1881 omgivet af den kongelige familie. Hun var indtil få dage før sin død optaget af sin sociale virksomhed.

Hun blev gravsat i Frederik den V´s kapel i Roskilde Domkirke. Hendes omfattende velgørenhedsarbejde gav hende eftermælet: „Fattigbørns Moder“ og „Den kongelige Fostermoder for de Smaa“. Hun havde testamentarisk bestemt, at hendes formue skulle tilfalde hendes asyl og asylskole, som nu er Den selvejende Institution Dronning Caroline Amalie.

Steve Rizzono

Steve Coombs er en tidligere amerikansk fribryder, der kæmpede for bl.a. Xtreme Pro Wrestling som „The Giggolo“ Steve Rizzono. Steve Rizzono er i dag så fysisk hæmmet af wrestling, at han er bundet til en rullestol.

Steve Coombs havde kæmpet i en del år som Steve Rizzono, inden han debuterede for Xtreme Pro Wrestling, i den californiske wrestling branche. Han havde dog aldrig haft stor succes og derfor så han XPW, trods det at han ikke var hardcore wrestler, som sit WWF. Steve Rizzono var medlem af Black Army, en gruppe der også bestod af promoteren af XPW, Rob Black. Steve Rizzono begyndte at udøve hardcore wrestling for at følge med stilen i XPW best place to buy water bottles, men det skulle han aldrig have gjort. Steve Rizzono kæmpede først og fremmest i bar overkrop, hvilket jo siger sig selv ikke er klogt når man kaster sig i pigtråd og tegnestifter, men han kæmpede også med bl.a official football shirts. Supreme og Pogo the Clown, to som er kendt for deres ukontrollerede wrestling stil how to tenderise beef, og sidstnævnte kan også tage en del af æren for at have ødelagt Steve Rizzono for livet. Han farvede sit hår hvidt og blev medlem af Black Armys modstandere The Enterprise. Her havde han dog heller ikke så meget succes, og det var i slutningen af 2002 at han trak sig tilbage efter svære rygsmerter og voldsomme kroniske hovedpiner. I 2007 fik Steve Coombs en rygoperation.

USS General M. L. Hersey (AP-148)

USS General M. L. Hersey (AP-148) was a General G. O. Squier-class transport ship of the U.S. Navy in World War II. She was named in honor of U.S. Army general Mark Leslie Hersey. She was transferred to the U.S. Army as USAT General M. L. Hersey in 1946. On 1 March 1950 she was transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) as USNS General M. L. Hersey (T-AP-148). She was later sold for commercial use, and operated under the names SS Pittsburgh and SS St. Louis.

General M. L. Hersey (AP-148) was built by Kaiser Co., Inc. of Richmond, California under Maritime Commission contract MC #665. She was launched on 1 April 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Alice Hersey Wick, General Hersey’s daughter and acquired by the Navy on 31 May 1944. She was commissioned on 29 July 1944 with Captain James W. Smith in command.

After shakedown off San Pedro, General M. L. Hersey sailed from San Francisco in September with troops and cargo for garrisons in the Southwest Pacific. She reached Milne Bay, New Guinea on 21 September and subsequently carried troops and supplies to the Admiralty Islands, the Russell Islands, and the Solomon Islands, before departing Guadalcanal on 6 October for the United States. She brought home more than 3,000 veterans of the Pacific fighting, arriving in San Francisco on 19 October. Between 7 November 1944 and 14 August 1945 the transport made four round-trip voyages from San Francisco and, Seattle to the Western Pacific, carrying troops to New Guinea, the Philippines, the Palaus best fabric pill remover, and the Marianas during the final amphibious offensive against Japan, At Leyte in November General M. L. Hersey endured frequent air attacks.

Following the surrender of Japan, she left Seattle 31 August and, steaming via the Philippines, she arrived in Yokohama on 24 September with occupation troops. There she embarked 3,052 troops and departed 5 days later as part of Operation Magic Carpet the sea-lift to return hundreds of thousands of American fighting men to the United States as quickly as possible. Between 3 December and 3 March 1946 she steamed twice to the Far East where she embarked returning veterans at Yokohama and Manila and transported them to San Pedro and San Francisco. Departing San Francisco on 23 March, she then steamed via Manila and Singapore to Calcutta, India, and Colombo football team uniforms, Ceylon, where she embarked „Magic Carpet“ troops. She departed Colombo 28 April, sailed via the Suez Canal, and arrived in New York on 21 May. She decommissioned at New York 1 June and was turned over to War Shipping Administration (WSA) on 6 June for eventual use as a transport by the Army Transportation Service.

Rebuilt by the Army to 12,545 tons, she was on duty for the International Refugee Organization (IRO) and initially based out of New Orleans (but later based out of New York).

On 14 January 1947, during a return voyage from Bremerhaven, USAT General M. L. Hersey responded to distress calls issued by SS Tecumseh Park which was thought to be in danger of foundering 840 miles (1,350 km) off Halifax, Nova Scotia. General M. L. Hersey stood by for two days before Tecumseh Park got underway on her own.

On 16 November 1949 USAT General M. L. Hersey left Naples with 1,283 displaced persons from Europe and arrived in Melbourne, Australia on 6 December 1949. This voyage was one of almost 150 „Fifth Fleet“ voyages by some 40 ships bringing refugees of World War II to Australia. General M. L. Hersey made two more such trips, arriving in Melbourne with 1,336 refugees on 27 April 1950, and in Fremantle with 1,370 passengers on 2 November 1950.

In the midst of her „Fifth Fleet“ voyages to Australia, the transport was reacquired by the Navy 1 March 1950. General M. L. Hersey was placed in service and assigned to MSTS under a civilian crew. Continuing to operate out of New York, she resumed carrying European refugees to the United States in support of the IRO.

On 07:32 on 4 November 1951, while ferrying elements of the 43rd Infantry Division to Bremerhaven, USNS General M. L. Hersey struck Argentine cruise ship MS Maipo amidships in thick fog over a calm North Sea. Maipo sank some three hours after the collision off Wangerooge. All 238 people aboard Maipo were rescued reusable water bottle with straw, and no one aboard General M. L. Hersey was injured.

During 1952 and 1953 she made four round-trips from San Francisco to the Far East in support of the Korean War. She was placed out of service 11 June 1954 and placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet at San Diego. Later transferred to the Maritime Administration, on 3 September 1959 she entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet, Suisun Bay, California.

The ship was sold under the MARAD Ship Exchange Program to Sea-Land Service, Inc. on 16 August 1968 and renamed SS Pittsburgh. She was renamed SS St. Louis, USCG ON 515620, IMO 6903228, in September 1969, and converted by Todd Shipbuilding, San Pedro, CA to a container ship 10 January 1970. The ship was scrapped in 1988 running waist pack.

General M. L. Hersey received one battle star for World War II service and two battle stars for Korean War service.

Transpersonal business studies

Transpersonal business studies is an area of interest within the field of transpersonal studies. It may be defined as businesses „in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond (trans) the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos“. Since the foundation of transpersonal psychology by Abraham Maslow in the late 1960s, other transpersonal disciplines have been considered.

In view of the fact that some of Maslow’s interests in psychology are related to the world of management, it is perhaps not surprising that transpersonal concepts have been applied to business studies and to the world of management. Transpersonal business studies is one of the disciplines considered by Marcie Boucouvalas (1999), which shows the practical utility of transpersonal themes.

There is now widespread recognition of the importance of transpersonal concepts in business studies and related fields such as management. This is evident from considerably large and growing literature dealing with spiritual aspects of the business world, management and economics. Boucouvalas cites Franklin (1981) and Pyle (1989) as examples of entrepreneurship with transpersonal themes. See also Corporate social entrepreneurship.

Related to this is the area of transpersonal management. Stretching things just slightly, although more relevant to humanistic psychology than to transpersonal psychology, the article by Schott (1992) on how the insights of both Abraham Maslow and Carl Jung can be applied to the field of management, organizations and leadership studies could be said to relate to this field.

Schott discusses self-actualisation in connection with management, noting Maslow’s term „eupsychian managers“ for managers who have reached self-actualisation, and also discusses why some self-actualising individuals may feel inhibited against aspirations to management positions. Schott also, in connection with Jung, discusses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in relation to management. The observation that self-actualisers may feel inhibited against moving into management positions has an especially acute implication for transpersonal management studies, since pork tenderizer, in transpersonal psychology, self-transcendence rather than self-actualisation is frequently viewed as the apex of psychological health; the extent to which self-transcendence is incompatible with desire for management positions is a topic that awaits further research.

Examples of how transpersonal concepts have practical utility in this field are considered by Cooper and Sauraf (1998), in their book on emotional intelligence in the workplace, in which they draw reference to states of consciousness such as the flow experience discussed by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi (see Flow). Their book quotes from the Japanese business strategist, Kerichi Omhae: „Successful business strategies results not from rigorous analysis… but from a process which is creative and individual rather than rational“ (cited in Cooper & Sauraf,1998, p152). The work of Jean Henry in the management realm is also relevant to this field – her book includes a chapter by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi (Henry, 1991; 2001).

A popular book on applications of intuition in the business sphere has been provided by Robinson (2006), who notes how people may use prayer to guide their decisions. Rigorous statistical empirical data germane to this field have been collected by Mirowsky and Ross (2007), including studies in creativity, a topic of importance in transpersonal psychology, in relation to health in an occupational setting. Their findings indicate that creativity „has an association with health]that exceeds those of education and household income“ (Mirowsky & Ross, 2007, p398) and underscores the differences between creativity and autonomy (it is the former which they found to be more closely related to health).

An example of a movement which links the areas of spirituality, business and management is the Spirituality, Leadership and Management Network (SLaM Network) waist pack with water bottle. This movement lists its tenets on its website, stating that its members are guided by principles such as a belief in unconditional love, the belief that different spiritual pathways are possible and the commitment to the view that everything in the universe is ultimately interconnected with everything else. The movement also refers to its journal on its website.

Also of relevance to this field is the practice of Islamic Banking. This is a banking practice which has been influential in Indonesia, and combines the spiritual values of Islam with good banking practice. There is indication of phenomenal growth (over 80%) in assets in Islamic Banking since 2004.

The newest publication based in transpersonal psychology is the online international peer reviewed journal beginning in June 2014 titled „The International Journal for Transformational Research“ ISSN  published by Living Leadership Today, LLC owned by education entrepreneur and pioneer researcher, Maria Rachelle. Rachelle, a former Biotech leader in Silicon Valley, California, created a unique approach to transpersonal based action research called „Embodied Action Research“ (EAR) focused on seeking understanding first from a phenomenological perspective based in the participatory action research approach (PAR) of Freire and body experience outlined by Merleau-Ponty (1945). The second stage of the EAR approach focuses on Feminist Pedagogy in the spirit of bell hooks (1994) and her book, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom and liberation pedagogy/theology approach under the methodological umbrella of hermeneutics as professed by Gadamer (1960). The essence of the action research approach is a transpersonal knowing of business studies to embrace a holistic and intention sensitive approach to understanding and assessing business studies and leadership effectiveness.

Ambiguity of what is meant by terms such as „transpersonal business“ or „transpersonal management“ can lead to criticisms of this field (cf. Boucovolas, 1999). It is not clear whether the term simply refers to conventional goals, such as economic profit, in business which are acquired by transpersonal techniques; or whether such a discipline really would mean a change of business aspirations, goals and values to become more spiritual and more altruistic. This relates to criticisms of the New Age as in danger of having a materialistic face.

Marcel Petiot

Marcel André Henri Félix Petiot, dit le docteur Petiot (alias Wetterwald François et capitaine Henri Valeri), né le à Auxerre et guillotiné le à Paris en France, est un médecin français qui, lors de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, fut accusé de meurtres, après la découverte à son domicile parisien des restes de vingt-sept personnes.

Marcel Petiot naît à Auxerre le , presque trois ans avant son frère Maurice, né en décembre 1899. Il est l’aîné de Félix Irénée Mustiole Petiot, alors âgé de 30 ans, employé des postes et télégraphes d’Auxerre, et de Marthe Marie Constance Joséphine Bourdon, alors âgée de 22 ans, sans emploi, mariés, locataires d’un appartement situé 100 rue de Paris à Auxerre, au dernier étage. Un oncle maternel par alliance est professeur de mathématiques au collège d’Auxerre. Marcel Petiot est issu de la petite bourgeoisie bourguignonne, son père étant devenu receveur des postes de Joigny.

Dès son enfance, il manifeste une grande intelligence – à cinq ans, il lit comme un enfant de dix ans –, et une forte précocité – mais il manifeste des signes de violence : il serait allé jusqu’à distribuer des images obscènes en cours, tirer au revolver sur des chats ou à en étrangler un après lui avoir plongé les pattes dans l’eau bouillante. Ces récits ultérieurs sur sa délinquance précoce ne sont cependant pas attestés et ont peut-être été inventés pour un public friand de ces faits divers.

Internée à Sainte-Anne pour une pathologie psychiatrique, sa mère meurt lorsqu’il a douze ans. Il suit alors son père à Joigny où ce dernier vient d’être nommé receveur runners pouch belt. Il est par la suite renvoyé de plusieurs écoles pour indiscipline. À dix-sept ans, il est arrêté pour avoir fracturé des boîtes aux lettres, non pour voler les mandats mais pour y lire les lettres et cartes postales. Il n’est pas condamné, un psychiatre l’ayant déclaré inapte à être jugé, estimant qu’il a une personnalité que l’on qualifierait aujourd’hui de « bipolaire », inadaptée socialement et anormale.

Abandonnant ses études de médecine pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, il devance l’appel et s’enrôle dans l’armée le 11 janvier 1916. Il est blessé au pied d’un éclat de grenade le 20 mars 1917. Accusé de vol de couverture à l’hôpital où il est soigné, il fait un premier séjour à la prison militaire d’Orléans avant d’être transféré dans le service psychiatrique de l’hôpital de Fleury-les-Aubrais où les psychiatres le déclarent neurasthénique, déséquilibré mental, dépressif paranoïaque et sujet à des phobies. Il est tout de même renvoyé au front en 1918, blessé une nouvelle fois, et réformé pour troubles psychiatriques. La commission militaire de réforme de Sens fixe son invalidité à 40 % et le déclare réformé temporaire. Un an plus tard en 1920, à Orléans, une autre commission fixe à 100 % cette incapacité, ramenée à 50 % en mars 1921. Le 18 juillet 1923, une dernière commission conclut à une « psychose mélancolique », une « obsession de la persécution » et une « démence précoce ». Les anciens combattants bénéficiant d’un accès facile aux études, il obtient son diplôme de médecine de la Faculté de Paris le 15 décembre 1921, avec mention très bien.

En 1922, il ouvre un cabinet médical à Villeneuve-sur-Yonne, où il devient rapidement populaire en offrant aux indigents consultations et vaccinations. Mais il se fait aussi remarquer par des tendances à la cleptomanie.

Élu conseiller municipal en 1925 puis maire en juillet 1926, il épouse le 4 juin 1927, à Seignelay, Georgette Valentine Lablais, fille d’un commerçant local propriétaire du restaurant parisien « Chez Marius », situé 5, rue de Bourgogne; leur fils unique Gerhardt naît le 19 avril 1928. Rapidement, il est cité devant les tribunaux pour plusieurs délits (fausses déclarations à l’assurance maladie, détournements de fonds). Son avocat, maître René Floriot, lui évite à chaque fois la prison ferme. Révoqué de son mandat de maire, en 1931, il se fait élire conseiller général mais est définitivement privé de tout mandat électif, en 1934, pour avoir trafiqué son compteur électrique.

Dès ce moment, plusieurs affaires inexpliquées suscitent des rumeurs, dont la disparition de sa bonne Louisette et l’incendie de la laiterie où est morte Mme Debove, patronne de l’entreprise.

Poursuivi par la justice pour divers délits, il part s’installer à Paris en 1933.

À son arrivée dans la capitale, Petiot ouvre un cabinet médical au premier étage du 66 rue de Caumartin – au-dessus d’un magasin d’objets de piété… Son entreprise est d’autant plus florissante qu’il organise une grande publicité, digne d’un charlatan, pour s’attirer des patients souffrant des maux les plus divers. Il vante sa pratique de l’électrothérapie. Il se prétend aussi spécialiste en désintoxication, ce qui lui permet de délivrer des ordonnances de complaisance à des toxicomanes ou morphinomanes sans risquer d’être interpellé pour trafic de stupéfiants.

En 1936, il est arrêté pour vol à l’étalage à la librairie Joseph Gibert, dans le Quartier latin. Il affirme à ses juges qu’« un génie ne se préoccupe pas de basses choses matérielles ». Déclaré aliéné mental, il échappe à la prison mais est interné d’office à la Maison de santé d’Ivry pendant sept mois. La question de son état mental se pose alors : est-il fou ou a-t-il simulé la folie pour éviter la prison ? Un premier expert psychiatre le déclare « délirant et irresponsable » mais un second conclut à « un individu sans scrupules, dépourvu de tout sens moral ».

Rendu à la liberté le 20 février 1937, il reprend tranquillement ses consultations.

Le 11 août 1941, il acquiert un hôtel particulier, à Paris, au 21, rue Le Sueur. Il y réalise d’importants travaux : il fait surélever le mur mitoyen pour empêcher toute vue sur la cour et transforme les communs en cabinet médical. Lors de fouilles ultérieures, la police découvrira une cave intégralement aménagée comportant :

À partir de 1942, il propose un passage clandestin en Argentine à des personnes craignant d’être poursuivies par la Gestapo. Les candidats à l’évasion sont invités à se présenter chez lui, de nuit, munies d’une valise contenant bijoux, espèces et argenterie. Sous le nom de « docteur Eugène » pineapple tenderizer, il recrute deux rabatteurs : un coiffeur, Raoul Fourrier, et un artiste de music-hall, Edmond Pintard. Les prétendants au voyage disparaissent mystérieusement sans atteindre l’Amérique du Sud – pas même Yvan Dreyfus, un prisonnier envoyé par la Gestapo pour infiltrer le réseau.

Une première victime disparaît le 2 janvier 1942. Il s’agit de Joachim Guschinow, un fourreur juif voisin de Petiot. Il aurait apporté l’équivalent de 300 000 euros en diamants. Visant d’abord les personnes seules, Petiot s’en prend bientôt à des familles entières, en leur proposant des « tarifs de groupe ». Les victimes sont essentiellement des Juifs, mais aussi des malfrats désireux de se faire oublier. Parallèlement à ces disparitions, d’autres individus connaissant le docteur, et risquant de le dénoncer, s’évanouissent dans la nature.

Les services allemands découvrent le réseau grâce à un second indicateur, un Français nommé Beretta. Petiot est arrêté et torturé pendant huit mois à la prison de Fresnes mais il n’avoue rien car il n’entretient aucun lien avec la Résistance. Il est libéré le 13 janvier 1944, faute de preuves. Il décide alors de faire disparaître des indices compromettants.

Le , les pompiers sont alertés par des voisins incommodés, depuis plusieurs jours, par des odeurs pestilentielles provenant d’une cheminée de la maison à l’abandon située 21, rue Le Sueur. Ils fracturent une fenêtre et pénètrent dans l’immeuble. Ils sont vite alertés par les émanations et le ronflement d’une chaudière. Descendus dans la cave, ils découvrent des corps humains dépecés, prêts à être incinérés dans deux calorifères à bois d’où provient la fumée.

Ensuite, il existe plusieurs versions des faits :

Quoi qu’il en soit, Petiot s’est volatilisé.

Lors de perquisitions ultérieures, on découvrira rue Le Sueur un débarras contenant 72 valises et 655 kilos d’objets divers dont 1 760 pièces d’habillement, parmi lesquelles :

En fuite, Petiot s’engage dans les Forces françaises de l’intérieur sous le nom de « Capitaine Valeri ». Lors de son procès, il expliquera que son propre réseau, nommé « Fly Tox » – marque alors très connue d’une pompe à main insecticide et allusion ironique à la chasse aux mouchards – avait été démantelé par les Allemands. Devenu médecin-capitaine, il est affecté à la caserne de Reuilly où il est devenu le Dr Wetterwald, officier de Sécurité Militaire chargé de l’épuration des traîtres et des collaborateurs.

À la Libération, un mandat d’arrêt est lancé contre lui mais il reste introuvable.

En septembre 1944, Jacques Yonnet, lieutenant à la DGER, publie dans le journal Résistance un article provocateur intitulé « Petiot, soldat du Reich ». Imprudent, Petiot utilise son droit de réponse. En adressant au journal une lettre manuscrite, il tombe dans un piège. Le journal n’étant diffusé que dans la capitale et en banlieue, la police en déduit qu’il se cache à proximité, au sein de la Résistance. Elle compare son écriture – facilement identifiable – à celle de tous les officiers FFI parisiens. Finalement, l’inspecteur Henri Soutif (qui a remplacé Georges Massu, alors emprisonné) l’arrête le à la station de métro Saint-Mandé – Tourelle. On trouve dans ses poches un revolver 9 mm, une carte des Milices Patriotiques et plusieurs cartes d’identité. L’enquête met au jour la complicité de son frère Maurice, commerçant rue du Pont à Auxerre ; de sa femme Georgette ; de sa belle-fille et maîtresse Léonie Arnaux ; d’Albert Neuhausen, marchand de cycles à Courson-les-Carrières, chez qui ont été retrouvées des valises.

Avant l’ouverture du procès, on inculpe son épouse et Albert Neuhausen de recel et son frère d’homicide involontaire. Ils bénéficient finalement d’un non-lieu. Petiot, que la presse baptise « docteur Satan », est jugé du 18 mars au , par la Cour d’Assises de la Seine, pour vingt-sept assassinats, dont ceux de douze Juifs et de quatre proxénètes accompagnés chacun de leur prostituée.

Dès le deuxième jour du procès, par fanfaronnade, Petiot revendique soixante-trois meurtres. Il affirme qu’il s’agit de cadavres de traîtres, de collaborateurs et d’Allemands. Jusqu’au bout, il prétend avoir tué « pour la France ». Toutefois, il reste incapable d’expliquer pourquoi un pyjama d’enfant figure dans les affaires dérobées à ses victimes, ni comment les corps retrouvés sont ceux d’innocents.

Durant les auditions, il montre une attitude désinvolte et va même jusqu’à s’endormir.

Malgré la plaidoirie de six heures prononcée par son avocat, maître René Floriot, il est condamné à mort pour vingt-quatre meurtres.

Au matin de l’exécution, quand l’avocat général Pierre Dupin le réveille en lui disant : « Ayez du courage, Petiot, c’est l’heure », il rétorque : « Tu me fais chier ». Et quand, au dernier moment, il lui demande s’il a quelque chose à déclarer, il répond : « Je suis un voyageur qui emporte ses bagages ». Ces paroles rappellent étrangement celles de Landru à son avocat, qui le pressait d’avouer ses crimes : « Cela, Maître, c’est mon petit bagage… ».

Soucieux de laisser une bonne image à maître Floriot, il lui demande de ne pas regarder l’exécution, affirmant : « Ça ne va pas être beau ! ».

Le , à 5 heures 07, il est guillotiné dans la cour de la prison de la Santé, dans le 14e arrondissement de Paris. Le bourreau est Jules-Henri Desfourneaux. D’après les témoins, il meurt avec détachement, un sourire aux lèvres. Il est ainsi le premier condamné de droit commun guillotiné après la Libération.

En marge de son acte de naissance, la mention de décès est erronée quant à l’arrondissement (il est inscrit : « décédé le 25 mai 46 à Paris 18e »).

Il est inhumé au Cimetière parisien d’Ivry, dans le carré des suppliciés. Le terrain ayant été repris par l’administration après l’abolition de la peine de mort en 1981, les corps sont relevés à la fin des années 1990 si bien qu’on ignore ce que sont devenus ses restes.

La fortune indûment amassée par Petiot est restée introuvable. Selon certaines estimations, elle aurait atteint quelque 30 millions d’euros (en valeur de 2012). Plusieurs personnes rachetèrent son hôtel particulier du 21 rue Le Sueur et le démontèrent pierre par pierre pour y trouver un magot – en vain… Le bâtiment sera détruit et remplacé par un immeuble neuf dans les années 1950.

Sa femme Georgette tenta de refaire sa vie en travaillant dans une boulangerie. D’après des sources incertaines, elle serait partie rejoindre son fils Gérard en Amérique du Sud à la fin des années 1940.

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Divers

Peony

and for lower taxa see text

The peony or paeony is a flowering plant in the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae jogging water bottle. They are native to Asia, Europe and Western North America. Scientists differ on the number of species that can be distinguished ranging from 25 to 40, although the current consensus is 33 known species. The relationships between the species need to be further clarified.

Most are herbaceous perennial plants 0.25–1 metre (0.82–3.28 ft) tall, but some are woody shrubs 0.25–3.5 metres (0.82–11.48 ft) tall. They have compound, deeply lobed leaves and large, often fragrant flowers, in colors ranging from purple red to white or yellow, in late spring and early summer.

Peonies are among the most popular garden plants in temperate regions. Herbaceous peonies are also sold as cut flower on a large scale, although generally only available in late spring and early summer.

All Paeoniaceae are deciduous perennial herbs or shrubs, with thick storage roots and thin roots for gathering water and minerals. Some species are caespitose, because the crown produces adventitous buds, while others have stolons. They have rather large compound leaves without glands and stipules, and with anomocytic stomata. In the woody species the new growth emerges from scaly buds on the previous flush or from the crown of the rootstock. The large bisexual flowers are mostly single at the end of the stem. In P. emodi, P. lactiflora, P. veitchii and many of the cultivars these contributed to, few additional flowers develop in the axils of the leaves. Flowers close at night or when the sky is overcast. Each flower is subtended by a number of bracts, that may form a sort of involucre, has 3-7 tough free sepals and mostly 5-8, but occasionally up to 13 free petals. These categories however are intergrading, making it difficult to assign some of them, and the number of these parts may vary. Within are numerous (50–160) free stamens, with anthers fixed at their base to the filaments, and are sagittate in shape, open with longitudal slits at the outer side and free pollen grains which have three slits or pores and consist of two cells. Within the circle of stamens is a more or less prominent, lobed disc, which is presumed not to excrete nectar. Within the disk is a varying number (1-15) of separate carpels, which have a very short style and a decurrent stigma. Each of these develops into a dry fruit (which is called a follicle), which opens with a lengthwise suture and each of which contains one or a few large fleshy seeds. The annual growth is predetermined: if the growing tip of a shoot is removed, no new buds will develop that season.

Paeonia suffruticosa,
buds

young growth of
a tree peony

Paeonia veitchii,
leaf

Paeonia tenuifolia,
leaves and flower buds

Paeonia suffruticosa, showing the disk that encloses the carpels

Paeonia wittmanniana,
ripe follicles with seeds

Paeonia anomala,
seeds

Paeoniaceae are dependent on C3 carbon fixation. They contain ellagic acid, myricetin, ethereal oils and flavones, as well as crystals of calcium oxalate. The wax tubules that are formed primarily consist of palmitone (the ketone of palmitic acid).

The basic chromosome number is five. About half of the species of the section Paeonia however is tetraploid (4n=20), particularly many of those in the Mediterranean region. Both allotetraploids and autotetraploids are known, and some diploid species are also of hybrid origin.

The family name „Paeoniaceae“ was first used by Friedrich K.L. Rudolphi in 1830, following a suggestion by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling that same year. The family had been given other names a few years earlier. The composition of the family has varied, but it has always consisted of Paeonia and one or more genera that are now placed in Ranunculales. It has been widely believed that Paeonia is closest to Glaucidium, and this idea has been followed in some recent works. Molecular phylogenetic studies, however, have demonstrated conclusively that Glaucidium belongs in the Ranunculaceae family, Ranunculales order, but that Paeonia belongs in the unrelated order Saxifragales. The genus Paeonia consists of about 35 species, assigned to three sections: Moutan, Onaepia and Paeoniae. The section Onaepia only includes P. brownii and P. californicum. The section Moutan is divided into P. delavayi and P. ludlowii, together making up the subsection Delavayanae, and P. catayana, P. decomposita, P. jishanensis, P. osti, P. qiui and P. rockii which constitute the subsection Vaginatae. P. suffruticosa is a cultivated hybrid swarm, not a naturally occurring species.

The remainder of the species belongs to the section Paeonia, which is characterised by a complicated reticulate evolution. Only about half of the (sub)species is diploid, the other half tetraploid, while some species both have diploid and tetraploid populations. In addition to the tetraploids, are some diploid species also likely the result of hybridisation, or nothospecies. Known diploid taxa in the Paeonia-section are P. anomala, P. lactiflora, P. veitchii, P. tenuifolia, P. emodi, P. broteri, P. cambedessedesii, P. clusii, P. rhodia, P. daurica subsps. coriifolia, daurica, macrophylla and mlokosewitschii. Tetraploid taxa are P. arietina, P. officinalis, P. parnassica, P. banatica, P. russi, P. peregrina, P. coriacea, P. mascula subsps. hellenica and mascula, and P. daurica subsps. tomentosa and wittmanniana. Species that have both diploid and tetraploid populations include P. clusii, P. mairei and P. obovata. P. anomala was proven to be a hybrid of P. lactiflora and P waterproof case for 5s. veitchii, although being a diploid with 10 chromosomes. P. emodi and P. sterniana are diploid hybrids of P. lactiflora and P. veitchii too, and radically different in appearance. P. russi is the tetraploid hybrid of diploid P. lactiflora and P. mairei, while P. cambedessedesii is the diploid hybrid of P. lactiflora, likely P. mairei, but possibly also P. obovata. P. peregrina is the tetraploid hybrid of P. anomala and either P. arietina, P. humilis, P. officinalis, P. parnassica or less likely P. tenuifolia, or one of their (now extinct) common ancestors. P. banatica is the tetraploid hybrid of P. mairei and one of this same group. P. broteri, P. coriacea, P. clusii, P. rhodia, P. daurica subsp. mlokosewitschi, P. mascula subsp. hellenica and ssp. mascula, and P. daurica subsp. wittmanniana are all descendants of hybrids of P. lactiflora and P. obovata.

According to recent genetic analyses, the monogeneric family Paeoniaceae is related to a group of families with woody species in the order Saxifragales. This results in the following relationship tree. One dissertation suggests the section Onaepia branches off earliest. A later publication of the same author and others suggests the Moutan-section splits off first. Within that section P. ludlowii and P. delavayi are more related to each other than to any other species.

Peridiscaceae

Paeonia

Altingiaceae

Hamamelidaceae

Cercidiphyllum

Daphniphyllum

 core Saxifragales 

all Eurasian herbaceous peonies

all other tree peonies

P. ludlowii

P. delavayi

P. brownii

P. californica

Paeonia anomala

Paeonia broteri

Paeonia brownii

Paeonia californica

Paeonia cambessedesii

Paeonia cambessedesii

Paeonia daurica mlokosewitschii

Paeonia delavayi

Paeonia emodi

Paeonia intermedia

Paeonia ludlowii

Paeonia mairei

Paeonia mascula

Paeonia russoi

Paeonia obovata japonica

Paeonia officinalis

Paeonia ostii

Paeonia rockii

Paeonia tenuifolia

The peony is named after Paeon (also spelled Paean), a student of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine and healing. When Asclepius became jealous of his pupil, Zeus saved Paeon from the wrath of Asclepius by turning him into the peony flower.

The genus Paeonia naturally occurs in the temperate and cold areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The section Moutan, which includes all woody species, is restricted in the wild to Central and Southern China, including Tibet. The section Onaepia consist of two herbaceous species and is present in the West of North-America, P. brownii between southern British Columbia and the Sierra Nevada in California and eastward to Wyoming and Utah, while P. californica is limited to the coastal mountains of Southern and Central California.

The section Paeonia, which comprises all other herbaceous species, occurs in a band stretching roughly from Morocco to Japan. One species of the section Paeonia, P. anomala, has by far the largest distribution, which is also north of the distribution of the other species: from the Kola peninsula in North-West Russia, to Lake Baikal in Siberia and South to the Tien Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan. The rest of the section concentrates around the Mediterranean, and in Asia.

The species around the Mediterranean include Paeonia algeriensis that is an endemic of the coastal mountains of Algeria, P. coriacea in the Rif Mountains and Andalucia, P. cambessedesii on Majorca, P. russoi on Corsica, Sardinia and Sicilly, P. corsica on Corsica, Sardinia, the Ionian islands and in western Greece, P. clusii subsp. clusii on Crete and Karpathos, and subsp. rhodia on Rhodes, P. kesrouanensis in the Western Taurus Mountains, P. arietina from the Middle Taurus Mountains, P

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. broteri in Andalucia, P. humilis from Andalucia to the Provence, P. officinalis from the South of France, through Switzerland to the Middle of Italy, P. banatica in western Romania, northern Serbia and Slovenia and in southern Hungary, P. peregrina in Albania, western Bulgaria, northern Greece, western Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia, while P. mascula has a large distribution from Catalonia and southern France to Israel and Turkey.

Between the two concentrations, the subspecies of Paeonia daurica occur, with subspecies velebitensis in Croatia, and daurica in the Balkans and Crimea, while the other subspecies coriifolia, macrophylla, mlokosewitschii, tomentosa and wittmanniana are known from the Caucasus, Kaçkar and Alborz Mountains.

Paeonia emodi occurs in the western Himalayas between Pakistan and western Nepal, P. sterniana is an endemic of southeastern Tibet, P. veitchii grows in Central China (Qinghai, Ningxia, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan and the eastern rim of Tibet), like P. mairei (Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan), while P. obovata grows in warm-temperate to cold China, including Manchuria, Korea, Japan, Far Eastern Russia (Primorsky Krai) and on Sakhalin, and P. lactiflora occurs in Northern China, including Manchuria, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia (Far East and Siberia).

The species of the section Paeonia have a disjunct distribution, with most of the species occurring in the Mediterranean, while many others occur in eastern Asia. Genetic analysis has shown that all Mediterranean species are either diploid or tetraploid hybrids that resulted from the crossbreeding of species currently limited to eastern Asia. The large distance between the ranges of the parent species and the nothospecies suggest that hybridisation already occurred relatively long ago. It is likely that the parent species occurred in the same region when the hybrids arose, and were later exterminated by successive Pleistocene glaciations, while the nothospecies remained in refugia to the South of Europe. During their retreat P. lactiflora and P. mairei likely became sympatric and so produced the Himalayan nothospecies P. emodi and P. sterniana.

Over 262 compounds have been obtained so far from the plants of Paeoniaceae. These include monoterpenoid glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, paeonols, and phenols. In vitro biological activities include antioxidant, antitumor, antipathogenic, immune-system-modulation activities, cardiovascular-system-protective activities and central-nervous-system activities.

Ancient Chinese texts mention the peony was used for flavoring food. Confucius (551–479 BC) is quoted to have said: „I eat nothing without its sauce. I enjoy it very much, because of its flavor.“ Peonies have been used and cultivated in China since early history. Ornamental cultivars were created from plants cultivated for medicine in China as of the sixth and seventh century. Peonies became particularly popular during the Tang dynasty, when they were grown in the imperial gardens. In the tenth century the cultivation of peonies spread through China, and the seat of the Sung dynasty, Luoyang, was the centre for its cultivation, a position it still holds today. A second centre for peony cultivation developed during the Qing dynasty in Cáozhōu, now known as He Ze. Both cities still host annual peony exhibitions and state-funded peony research facilities. Before the tenth century, P. lactiflora was introduced in Japan, and over time many varieties were developed both by self fertilisation and crossbreeding, particularly during the eightienth to twentieth centuries (middle Edo to early Shōwa periods). During the 1940s Toichi Itoh succeeded in crossing tree peonies and herbaceous peonies and so created a new class of so-called intersectional hybrids. Although P. officinalis and its cultivars were grown in Europe from the fifteenth century on, originally also for medicinal purposes, intensive breeding started only in the nineteenth century when P. lactiflora was introduced from its native China to Europe. The tree peony was introduced in Europe and planted in Kew Gardens in 1789. The main centre of peony breeding in Europe has been in the United Kingdom, and particularly France. Here, breeders like Victor Lemoine and François Félix Crousse selected many new varieties, mainly with P. lactiflora, such as „Avant Garde“ and „Le Printemps“. The Netherlands is the largest peony cut flower producing country with about 50 million stems each year, with „Sarah Bernardt“ dominating the sales with over 20 million stems.

Peony species come in two distinct growth habits, while hybrid cultivars in addition may occupy an intermediate habit.

Six types of flower are generally distinguished in cultivars of herbaceous peonies.

Paeonia ×arendsii „Claire de Lune“,
single flowered

Paeonia „Walter Mains“,
Japanese flowered

Paeonia lactiflora „Bowl Of Beauty“,
anemone flowered

Paeonia lactiflora „James Kelway“,
semi-double flowered

Paeonia „Ruth Clay“,
bomb flowered

Paeonia lactiflora „Da Fu Gui“,
double flowered

Herbaceous and Itoh peonies are propagated by root division, and sometimes by seed. Tree peonies can be propagated by grafting, division, seed, and from cuttings, although root grafting is most common commercially.

Herbaceous peonies such as Paeonia lactiflora, will die back to ground level each autumn. Their stems will reappear the following spring. However tree peonies, such as Paeonia suffruticosa, are shrubbier. They produce permanent woody stems that will lose their leaves in winter but the stem itself remains intact above ground level.

The herb known as Paeonia, in particular the root of P. lactiflora (Bai Shao, Radix Paeoniae Lactiflorae), has been used frequently in traditional medicines of Korea, China and Japan. In Japan, Paeonia lactiflora used to be called ebisugusuri („foreign medicine“). Pronunciation of 牡丹 (peony) in Japan is „botan.“ In kampo (the Japanese adaptation of Chinese medicine), its root was used as a treatment for convulsions. It is also cultivated as a garden plant. In Japan Paeonia suffruticosa is called the „King of Flowers“ and Paeonia lactiflora is called the „Prime Minister of Flowers.“

In China, the fallen petals of Paeonia lactiflora are parboiled and sweetened as a tea-time delicacy. Peony water, an infusion of peony petals, was used for drinking in the Middle Ages. The petals may be added to salads or to punches and lemonades.

Peonies are also extensively grown as ornamental plants for their very large, often scented flowers.

The peony is among the longest-used flowers in Eastern culture. Along with the plum blossom, it is a traditional floral symbol of China, where the Paeonia suffruticosa is called 牡丹 (mǔdān). It is also known as 富貴花 (fùguìhuā) „flower of riches and honour“ or 花王 (huawang) „king of the flowers“, and is used symbolically in Chinese art. In 1903, the Qing dynasty declared the peony as the national flower. Currently, the Republic of China government in Taiwan designates the plum blossom as the national flower, while the People’s Republic of China government has no legally designated national flower. In 1994, the peony was proposed as the national flower after a nationwide poll, but the National People’s Congress failed to ratify the selection. In 2003, another selection process has begun, but to date, no choice has been made.

The ancient Chinese city Luoyang has a reputation as a cultivation centre for the peonies. Throughout Chinese history, peonies in Luoyang have been said to be the finest in the country. Dozens of peony exhibitions and shows are still held there annually.

In the Middle Ages, peonies were often painted with their ripe seed-capsules, since it was the seeds, not the flowers, which were medically significant. Ancient superstition dictated that great care be taken not to be seen by a woodpecker while picking the plant’s fruit, or the bird might peck out one’s eyes.

In 1957, the Indiana General Assembly passed a law to make the peony the state flower of Indiana glass sports bottle, a title which it holds to this day. It replaced the zinnia, which had been the state flower since 1931.

Mischievous nymphs were said to hide in the petals of the Peony, giving it the meaning of Shame or Bashfulness in the Language of Flowers. While the peony takes several years to re-establish itself when moved, it blooms annually for decades once it has done so.

Peonies tend to attract ants to the flower buds. This is due to the nectar that forms on the outside of the flower buds, and is not required for the plants‘ own pollination or other growth.

Peonies are a common subject in tattoos, often used along with koi-fish. The popular use of peonies in Japanese tattoo was inspired by the ukiyo-e artist Utagawa Kuniyoshi’s illustrations of Suikoden, a classical Chinese novel. His paintings of warrior-heroes covered in pictorial tattoos included lions, tigers, dragons, koi fish, and peonies, among other symbols. The peony became a masculine motif, associated with a devil-may-care attitude and disregard for consequence.

Famous painters of peonies have included Conrad Gessner (ca. 1550) and Auguste Renoir in 1879. Paeonia officinalis can be found in the altar picture of Maria im Rosenhag by Schongauer in the former Dominican Church in Colmar. The Italian Jesuit, painter and architect Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766), who worked at the court of the Qianlong Emperor in the Qing dynasty, painted peonies.

Otfried Preussler

Otfried Preußler (Liberec waist belt for running, 20 ottobre 1923 – Prien am Chiemsee, 18 febbraio 2013) è stato uno scrittore tedesco, autore di libri per ragazzi. I suoi libri più conosciuti sono Il brigante Pennastorta e Il mulino dei dodici corvi (Krabat) best waterproof case for 5s, da cui è stata tratta la sceneggiatura di un film del 2008.

Preußler nacque con il nome di Otfried Syrowatka il 20 ottobre 1923 presso Liberec (in tedesco Reichenberg), allora in Cecoslovacchia e oggi in Repubblica Ceca. Il padre, insegnante, discendeva da un’antica famiglia boema di vetrai.

Nel 1942, subito dopo aver completato gli studi superiori, Preußler fu inviato sul fronte orientale come ufficiale tedesco (nel 1938 la sua regione natale era stata annessa alla Germania). Catturato dai soldati sovietici, trascorse cinque anni di prigionia, nel corso dei quali, a causa di varie malattie (fra cui il tifo e la malaria), dimagrì fino a pesare solamente una quarantina di chili.

Nel 1949 shirt printing football, dopo essere stato liberato, si stabilì in Baviera. Visse a lungo a Haidholzen, vicino a Rosenheim. Lavorò per un periodo come insegnante, ma successivamente si dedicò interamente alla letteratura, in particolare a quella dei ragazzi, ottenendo un successo mondiale. Ha scritto trentadue libri, che sono stati stampati in circa cinquanta milioni di esemplari.

Nel 1973 gli sono stati conferiti una serie di premi per il romanzo Il mulino dei dodici corvi, fra cui la Menzione d’onore del premio Andersen. Nel 2010 gli è stata conferita la Medaglia dell’Ordine di Massimiliano per le Scienze e le Arti.

Idrettslaget Trott

Idrettslaget Trott (stiftet i 1948) er et norsk idrettslag fra Stord i Hordaland. Klubben har tilbud hovedsakelig innen fotball quick way to tenderize beef.

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Karel Candael

Carolus (Karel) Candael (Antwerpen, 4 september 1883 – Rotterdam, 27 maart 1948) was een Belgisch componist, muziekpedagoog en dirigent.

Hij kwam uit het arbeidersgezin van Jozephus Cornelis Candael en Maria Werner. Hij was getrouwd met Anna Creutz, een coloratuurzangeres met wie hij ook optrad. Uit het huwelijk kwam voort componist, dirigent Steven Candael en danseres, choreografe Marina Candael (1922-2003) biro meat tenderizer.

Karel Candael studeerde aan het Antwerpse Conservatorium bij Jan Blockx, Emile Wambach (harmonie), Jozef Tilborghs en Lodewijk Mortelmans (contrapunt en fuga). Na zijn opleiding was hij zeer actief in de koor- en liedbeweging en stichtte hij het koor De Zangkapel. In 1909 werd hij benoemd tot tweede dirigent van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Opera. Twee jaar later schopte hij het tot dirigent van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Schouwburg . Vanaf 1930 was hij ook dirigent van de Casino-concerten in Knokke.

Als pedagoog was Candael verschillende jaren aan het Koninklijk Vlaams Conservatorium actief. Nadat hij tijdens de oorlogsjaren muziekles had gegeven in de Antwerpse stadsscholen werd hij er in 1919 leraar notenleer. In 1934 werd hij gepromoot tot leerkracht contrapunt en fuga.

Candael was ook actief als componist: zo schreef hij onder meer de balletten De zeven hoofdzonden (1927), Het Hooglied (1936) en het oratorium Het Marialeven (1941-1943) op tekst van zijn vriend Maurice Gilliams. Deze laatste werd in 1991 verfilmd door de BRT. Zijn cantate Genovena van Brabant behaalde een Prix de Rome.

Hij was actief in de socialistische beweging. In die hoedanigheid was hij in maart 1948 (weer) even in Nederland. Hij zou een concert leiden van het Lassalle-koor uit Antwerpen in het kader van een verbroederingsfeest. Hij gaf 27 maart 1948 leiding aan een repetitie van de Altrapsodie van Johannes Brahms met zangeres Hester Blok, toen hij in elkaar zakte glass water bottle with rubber cover, waarschijnlijk als gevolg van een hartinfarct. Het stoffelijk overschot werd opgebaard in de kapel van het Sint Franciscus Gasthuis.

Bant

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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Flevoland

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Pays-Bas

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Pays-Bas

Bant est un des dix villages de la commune néerlandaise de Noordoostpolder, dans la province du Flevoland glass water bottle manufacturers.

Le village est situé le long de l’autoroute A6, entre Emmeloord et Lemmer, et sur le Lemstervaart upholstery shaver, canal qui relie ces deux villes.

Le village a été créé en 1951. Le , Bant comptait 1 388 habitants. Ce village récent tire son nom des terres de Bant ou Bantega, situé dans le Lemsterland actuel, et qui s’étendaient dans la région actuellement occupée par le polder du Noordoostpolder.

Près de Bant se trouve le Kuinderbos, bois créé après l’assèchement du polder.

-Bant- est un élément germanique signifiant „lien“ mais aussi „zone“ (on peut faire le parallèle avec le latin zona qui signifie ceinture et a donné le mot zone), qu’on retrouve dans Brabant, Teisterbant, Caribant (ou Carembault), dans le nom de nombreux villages (Bant, Braibant, Swifterbant, etc) et des noms de famille (Stroobant).

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