History of the Jews in 18th-century Poland

Jewish Polish history during the 18th century:

With the accession to the throne of the Saxon dynasty the Jews completely lost the support of the government. Although Augustus II the Strong (1697–1733), and August III Wettin (1733–1763) officially confirmed at their coronations the Jewish charters, such formal declarations were insufficient to guard the already limited rights of the Jews against the hostile elements, owing to the disorders prevailing in the kingdom blade meat tenderizer. The government was anxious only to collect from the Kahals the taxes, which were constantly being made heavier despite the Jews having not yet recovered from the ruinous events of the Cossacks‘ uprising and the Swedish invasion. The Jews‘ plight was compounded by the fact that the Sejm, composed of nobility and Catholic clergy, blocked all attempts to levy taxes on nobility or clergy, thus only townsfolk and Jews were taxed.

The szlachta and the townsfolk were increasingly hostile to the Jews, as the religious tolerance that dominated the mentality of the previous generations of the Commonwealth citizens was slowly forgotten. In their intolerance, the citizens of the Commonwealth now approached the „standards“ that dominated most of the contemporary European countries, and many Jews felt betrayed by the country they once viewed as their haven. In the larger cities, like Poznań and Kraków, quarrels between the Christian and Jewish inhabitants were common and they assumed a very violent aspect. Based originally on economic grounds, they were carried over into the religious arena; and it was evident that the seeds which the Jesuits had planted had finally borne fruit. Ecclesiastical councils displayed great hatred toward the Jews. Attacks on the latter by students, the so-called Schüler-Gelauf, became every-day occurrences in the large cities, the police regarding such scholastic riots with indifference. Lawlessness, violence, and disorder reigned supreme at that time in Poland, marking the beginning of the downfall of the kingdom. In order to protect themselves against such occurrences, the Jewish communities in many cities made annual contributions to the local Catholic schools.

The decade from the Cossacks‘ uprising until after the Swedish war (1648–1658) left a deep and lasting impression not only on the social life of the Polish-Lithuanian Jews, but on their spiritual life as well. The intellectual output of the Jews of Poland was reduced. The Talmudic learning which up to that period had been the common possession of the majority of the people became accessible to a limited number of students only. What religious study there was became overly formalized, some rabbis busied themselves with quibbles concerning religious laws steel water glass; others wrote commentaries on different parts of the Talmud in which hair-splitting arguments were raised and discussed; and at times these arguments dealt with matters which were of no practical moment. At the same time, many miracle-workers made their appearance among the Jews of Poland, as even famous rabbis of that time devoted themselves to kabbalistic practices, this mysticism culminated in a series of false „Messianic“ movements, and Sabbatianism was succeeded by Frankism among the Jews of Poland.

In this time of mysticism and overly formal rabbinism came the teachings of Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov, or BeShT, (1698–1760), which had a profound effect on the Jews of Eastern Europe and Poland in particular. His disciples taught and encouraged the new fervent brand of Orthodox Judaism based on Kabbalah known as Hasidism. One of those great disciples and teachers was Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk (1717–1786). Many of these disciples became Rebbes themselves with followings, as with the Gerer Hasidic dynasty which was begun by Rabbi Yitzchak Meir Alter (1798–1866). Hasidism gave a ready response to the burning desire of the common people in its simple, stimulating, and comforting faith. In contradistinction to other sectarian teaching, early Hasidism aimed not at dogmatic or ritual reform, but at a deeper psychological one. Its aim was to change not the belief, but the believer. It created a new type of religious man, a type that placed emotion above reason and rites, and religious exaltation above knowledge.

The rise of Hasidic Judaism within Poland’s borders and beyond has had a great influence on the rise of Haredi Judaism all over the world, with a continuous influence that has been felt from the inception of the Hasidic movements and its dynasties by famous rebbes until the present time. The following are noteworthy:

Disorder and anarchy reigned supreme in Poland during the second half of the 18th century, from the accession to the throne of its last king, Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski (1764–1795). This state of affairs was due to the haughty demeanor of the nobility toward the lower classes. The necessity for reform was recognized by the king and by many of the Commonwealth citizens; but Poland was already in the grasp of Russia, and little could be done in this direction. Jewish affairs were sadly neglected, the government seeking merely the extortion of larger taxes; thus the Sejm which met at Warsaw in 1764 for the discussion of measures of reform considered the Jews only to the extent of changing the tax system. About this time, and as a direct consequence of the disorganization of Poland, the disastrous incursions of the brigand bands known as the Haidamaka took place. The movement originated in Podolia and in that part of Ukraine which still belonged to Poland.

These and other internal disorders combined to hasten the end of Poland as a sovereign state. In 1772, in the aftermath of the Confederation of Bar, the outlying provinces were divided among the three neighboring nations, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Russia secured a considerable part of the territory now known as Belarus; Austria obtained Galicia and a part of Podolia; while Prussia received Pomerelia and the lands lying along the lower Vistula. Jews were most numerous in the territories that fell to the lot of Austria and Russia.

The permanent council established at the instance of the Russian government (1773–1788) served as the highest administrative tribunal, and occupied itself with the elaboration of a plan that would make practicable the reorganization of Poland on a more rational basis. The progressive elements in Polish society recognized the urgency of popular education as the very first step toward reform. In 1773 the Society of Jesus in Poland was abolished by Pope Clement XIV, who thus freed Polish youth from the demoralizing influences of Jesuitism. The famous Komisja Edukacji Narodowej („Commission of National Education“), first Ministry of Education in the world, was established in 1773 and founded numerous new schools and remodeled the old ones. One of the members of the commission, kanclerz Andrzej Zamoyski, along with others, demanded that the inviolability of their persons and property should be guaranteed and that religious toleration should be to a certain extent granted them; but he insisted that Jews living in the cities should be separated from the Christians, that those of them having no definite occupation should be banished from the kingdom, and that even those engaged in agriculture should not be allowed to possess land. On the other hand, some szlachta and intellectuals proposed a national system of government bpa free drink bottles, of the civil and political equality of the Jews. This was the only example in modern Europe before the French Revolution of tolerance and broad-mindedness in dealing with the Jewish question. On 3 May 1791 the Great Sejm passed the second oldest constitution of the world, the Polish Constitution of 3 May. But all these reforms were too late. Through the intrigues and bribery of Catherine II of Russia the Confederation of Targowica was formed, to which belonged the adherents of the old order of things. A Russian army invaded Poland, and soon after a Prussian one followed.

A second partition of Poland was made July 17, 1793, Russia taking a large part of White Russia, half of Volhynia, all of Podolia, and the part of Ukraine which had previously been retained by Poland, and Prussians taking Great Poland (Poznań).

A general uprising (Kościuszko Uprising) of the citizens of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1794. Tadeusz Kościuszko was made its leader and dictator, and succeeded in driving the Russians out of Warsaw. Dissensions, however, arose among the Poles, and the Russians and Prussians again entered Poland in force. Kościuszko was decisively defeated at Battle of Maciejowice October 10, 1794; Alexander Suvorov entered Warsaw on November 8, and Polish resistance came to an end. The Jews took an active part in this last struggle of Poland for independence. With the permission of Kościuszko, Berek Joselewicz (1764–1809) formed a regiment of light cavalry consisting entirely of Jews. This regiment accomplished many deeds of valor on the field of battle and distinguished itself especially at the siege of Warsaw, nearly all its members perishing in the defence and eventual massacre of Praga, the fortified suburb of the capital.

The third and final partition of Poland took place in 1795. Russia acquired the whole of Lithuania and Courland; Austria, the remainder of Galicia, and Podolia, including Kraków; Prussia glass water bottle with measurements, the rest of Poland, including Warsaw, the capital; and with that Poland ceased to exist as an independent country. The great bulk of the Jewish population was transferred to Russia, and thus became subjects of that empire, although in the first half of the 19th century some semblance of a Polish state was preserved, greatly diminished, especially in the form of the Congress Poland (1815–1831).


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Tawi Sli

Dato‘ Sri Penghulu Tawi Sli (12 June 1912 – 1987) was the second chief minister of Sarawak.

Tawi Sli was born in Banting, Sarawak. He hailed from an Anglican family. He received his formal education at St. Thomas school in Kuching until Form 3.

After school bpa free drink bottles, Tawi Sli worked as a teacher in a mission school while undergoing a three-year training programme to become a pastor. He served as a clerk with the government before he retired in 1961.

In 1963, Tawi Sli was appointed as Penghulu and he started to become active in politics. He was the secretary of Sarawak National Party (SNAP) of the Simanggang branch. He later resigned from SNAP and joined Parti Pesaka Sarawak in 1966.

Tawi Sli was appointed as the chief minister of Sarawak by the then Governor of Sarawak, Abang Haji Openg, during the 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis. He was the chief minister for 3 months (16 June 1966 to 7 September 1966) before Stephen Kalong Ningkan was reinstated by the High Court as the legitimate chief minister. However, Tawi Sli later sworn in as the chief minister for the second time on 23 September 1966 following the successful ouster of Ningkan from the chief minister post.

He retired from politics in 1974 and later was involved in business until his death in 1987. His wife, Datin Sri Dorothy Inti, died in April 2015 ways to tenderise meat.

Love Never Faileth

Love Never Faileth is a practical commentary on Saint Francis, Saint Paul, Saint Augustine, and Mother Teresa. Written by Eknath Easwaran, the book was originally published in the United States in 1984.

Subsequent editions of the book have been published in the US and India, and foreign (non-English) editions have also been published in several languages. The book’s original subtitle was the inspiration of Saint Francis, Saint Augustine, Saint Paul, Mother Teresa. In its second edition in 1996, as part of a 3-book series entitled Classics of Christian Inspiration, the book was subtitled Eknath Easwaran on St. Francis, St. Paul, St. Augustine, & Mother Teresa.

Across its editions, the book has been reviewed in a scholarly journal, and in several newspapers.

Each edition of Love Never Faileth contains a separate part on each of the four Christian spiritual figures mentioned in the book’s subtitle. Each part contains a short introduction by Carol Lee Flinders, followed by a longer commentary by Easwaran. The book also contains a short overall introduction by Flinders. Each of Easwaran’s commentaries is structured around a text: The Prayer of Saint Francis, Mother Teresa’s „Love is a fruit in season at all times,“ Paul’s Epistle on Love, and Augustine’s description from the Confessions of what it is to „Enter into the joy of the Lord.“

To clarify the commentaries, each edition also concludes with a brief description of the text-focused method of meditation that is several times mentioned by Easwaran. The 1984 edition also includes woodblock prints of each of the faces of each of the four spiritual figures. The 1996 edition includes an 8 page index.

Reviews have appeared in the National Catholic Reporter, Studia Mystica, the Western New York Catholic, Prairie Messenger, and the B.C. Catholic,

The National Catholic Reporter stated that in Love Never Faileth, „Easwaran describes the way [these spiritual figures] think, pray and live and invites us to slow down our franticness, examine our priorities and follow an eight-step program that will make all life take on the quality of a summer retreat – bright with hope and beauty.“

In Studia Mystica, Wayne Teasdale wrote that „Love Never Faileth is a very important new addition to the literature of meditation.“ He wrote that the book

is a unique attempt to lead people into the concrete realization, that is, in their daily lives, of love’s ultimacy and its great power to heal as well as transform. It goes beyond the mere hortatory purpose of most hagiographies, beyond edification, and distills the innermost moral teaching of the saints (an innermost teaching that is eminently mystical). [The author] takes this teaching … and applies it to everyday life, showing also how every one of us can do the same as the saints.

Teasdale also noted that „Half the book is devoted to Augustine, and the briefest chapter is devoted to Mother Teresa’s vision … this is not a speculative work …. This is a very practical book by a very practical spiritual teacher.“

The Western New York Catholic stated that „This book shows how, in specific terms, we can all stretch our capacity to love beyond anything we can imagine and how prayer with meditation can tap inner strength at will …. The methods used in Love Never Faileth were familiar in the early Church, as the author illustrates through his use of inspirational passages from the four ‚great lovers of God.'“

Prairie Messenger, a Roman Catholic publication, stated that Easwaran „was formed on both Christian and Oriental scriptures … [and] seems especially at home in Love Never Faileth … To each [chapter] an introduction … sets the stage for Easwaran’s dramatic reading of each of his favorites.“

The B bpa free drink bottles. C. Catholic wrote that the chapters on Saint Francis and Mother Teresa most compellingly show Easwaran’s „special fondness for people who suffer from material and spiritual poverty and especially from a lack of love …. His meditation on St. Francis‘ Prayer&nbsp best electric lint remover;… is the most inspiring I have read, especially as Easwaran illustrates it with anecdotes from his own life.“

Biography (book) · Works

Bhagavad Gita · Upanishads

Gandhi the Man
Nonviolent Soldier of Islam

Essence of the Upanishads
Essence of the Dhammapada Essence of the Bhagavad Gita Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living

Original Goodness
Love Never Faileth
Seeing with the Eyes of Love

Passage Meditation
Mantram Handbook
Conquest of Mind
Strength in the Storm · others

God Makes the Rivers to Flow
Timeless Wisdom
Words to Live By

The original edition was published in 1984 by Nilgiri Press, who republished it in 1996 as one volume in a series entitled Classics of Christian Inspiration. Editions of Love Never Faileth have been published in Greek, Portuguese, and Spanish, and English-language editions have been published in India and the US. The US editions are:

The Indian edition:

Diggs Nightcrawler

Moonbot Studios

Diggs Nightcrawler (or Wonderbook: Diggs Nightcrawler) is a 2013 augmented reality video game for the PlayStation 3. Developed by Moonbot Studios, it is the second game to make use of the Wonderbook peripheral. The game was released in Europe on 31 May 2013 and North America on 12 November 2013, alongside Walking with Dinosaurs and Book of Potions.

The game is set in Library City, a place populated with characters from nursery rhymes and other classic literature. The characters, setting and storyline are all designed to resemble film noir archetypes.

The game begins with a short film in which Humpty Dumpty, addressing the player, says he knows he will soon be „bumped off“, and asks the player to find his close friend, private detective Diggs Nightcrawler, in order to find out who is responsible. The film ends just as Humpty’s apparent murderer enters the room (though they are not shown). The player then meets with Diggs at his office. Diggs agrees to bring the „kid“ along, but only because it was Humpty’s request. A mysterious suited individual appears at the door and hands Diggs an egg bomb, prompting a chase through the city streets, during which the shadowy figure gets away. Diggs and the player head to the crime scene where, despite the suspicions of the three little porcine police officers, they find the pieces of Humpty’s shell, which are then used to put Humpty together again. But, just before they place the last piece, Diggs and the pigs are beaten up under cover of darkness, only to find, when light returns, that Humpty’s body has been taken.

Diggs decides to head to the Frying Pan, a jazz club owned by Humpty, to see his girlfriend Itsy Bitsy in hopes of getting a new lead. He is physically barred from entry by Seeno, Hearno, and Speakno, but finds a way around them. Itsy lets Diggs hide in her dressing room while she performs a number, where he finds another piece of Humpty’s shell. Thinking the „shadow“ may be trying to frame Itsy, too, Diggs heads to the show floor to warn her. Shortly afterward, the three little pigs enter, convinced that Diggs is the murderer, prompting a chase to the club’s rear exit. After subduing the cops, Diggs finds the shadow making a getaway in his car, with Humpty’s body in the back. The detective enlists the help of the three blind mice to catch the shadow.

After a car chase in which a few pieces of Humpty loose, but not in catching the shadow, Diggs heads to other parts of Library City to collect the missing shell fragments including the Pirates‘ Wharf, where he finds that L.J. Silver and his crew are assisting the villain by stealing pages from other stories; Bo Peep’s meadow, where he learns that missing pages in their stories has caused some characters to act strangely, and Ma Goose, who Diggs helps by repairing a few stories. Finally, he heads to Sherwood, where Robin Hood has been affected by his story missing pages. Unfortunately, Diggs is captured by Seeno, Hearno and Speakno. He briefly breaks free, but is recaptured and sent to Horrortown and the player learns that the „shadow“ is really The Invisible Man.

After finding the entrance to an abandoned castle through a graveyard, the player is reunited with Diggs, being held in the dungeon. „Invisible Manny“ appears to taunt Diggs before he and the three monkeys are called by the „boss“ goalkeeper gloves online. Shortly afterward best running belt for women, Bitsy appears and convinces Diggs to give her the pieces of Humpty’s shell he has collected, after which she reveals that she is the boss, and leaves Diggs to his death. However, Diggs is rescued by the player and heads to a room where Itsy’s plan is revealed: by stealing the best parts of other stories and adding them to her own, The Itsy Bitsy Spider will become the „best story in town“. Assisted by Frankie, she succeeds in bringing her Franken-story to life but, thanks to Diggs putting him back together just in time, Humpty is also resurrected. The three heroes chase Itsy through the castle in an extended gunfight at the end of which the three little pigs reappear to arrest Diggs thermos filter water bottle, but Humpty sets them straight.

Finally, the group head to the towering waterspout. After Dumpty and the pigs are left unable to continue, Diggs and the player make their way to the top of the tower where, after a brief scuffle over the book, whose myriad mismatched contents are quickly spiralling out of control, Itsy falls into the waterspout and is flushed down to her apparent demise.

Diggs and Humpty reconvene at the don’s manor where, after recounting the adventure, Diggs formally acknowledges the player as his partner.

Unlike Book of Spells, the Wonderbook is used in more ways than just turning its pages; players will frequently have to rotate, tilt and shake the book in order to interact with the world displayed on screen and advance the plot. Upon completion of each of the game’s three chapters, the player can partake in a number of photographic assignments using the PlayStation Move controller as a camera.

In an article for The Telegraph, Andy Robertson gave the game a positive review, praising its improvements over Book of Spells in both plot substance and more active use of the Wonderbook peripheral bpa free drink bottles. He also stated that the Wonderbook games, along with titles such as Invizimals, The Unfinished Swan and Tumble, are helping Sony „[hit] the family market previously dominated by Nintendo.“

Hochschule für Schauspielkunst Meiningen

Die Hochschule für Schauspielkunst Meiningen war eine Schauspielschule in der thüringischen Kreisstadt Meiningen.

Die Hochschule für Schauspielkunst Meiningen wurde am 28. September 1919 gegründet und war dem Hof- und Landestheater Meiningen angegliedert. Initiator war der damalige Intendant Franz Ulbrich. Die Schauspielschule knüpfte an die große Tradition des Meininger Theaters bei der Erziehung und Ausbildung junger Schauspieleleven durch die Helene Freifrau von Heldburg, der Gemahlin von „Theaterherzog“ Georg II. cheap custom football shirts, Ende des 19. und Anfang des 20 buy a water bottle. Jahrhunderts an.

An der Hochschule für Schauspielkunst wurden die Fächer Rollenstudium, Lesen, Vortragekunst, Zusammenspiel, Mimik und Gebärdensprache gelehrt. Die Eleven zogen die Lehrer weiterhin zu öffentlichen Vorspielen und Inszenierungen am Theater heran. Als Hochschulblatt erschienen die „Dramaturgischen Blätter“ mit Originalbeiträgen bekannter Autoren und Theaterwissenschaftler bpa free drink bottles. Zu den Dozenten und Lehrer gehörten unter anderen Franz Nachbaur, Martin Homburg, Fanny Stolzenberg, Margit Hellberg und Rudolf Fuchs.

Nach dem Weggang von Franz Ulbrich 1925 nach Weimar und dem Tod von Franz Nachbaur 1926 wurde der Hochschulbetrieb am Theater eingestellt und es fand nur noch privater Schauspielunterricht statt. Die Hochschule wurde daraufhin nach kurzer Existenz aufgelöst.


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